Cote d’Ivoire developed a NAP in 2008 for the time frame of 2008-2012.
The NAP identifies sexual violence against women and its associated consequences and public costs as a key area of concern for its post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation efforts and implementation of UNSCR1325. As such, there is a significant emphasis on sexual violence within the NAP. As the NAP states “the institutional and legal protection of women and girls against sexual violence including female circumcision, will constitute a major pillar”.
Other objectives are closely tied to the general objectives of UNSCR1325 and include the integration of gender sensitivity in public policies and programs and increasing women’s representation and participation in decision making processes, particularly as related to post-conflict recovery and reconciliation in Cote d’Ivoire.
The NAP was developed and led by the Ministry of Family, Women and Social Affairs and is monitored and reported upon by a Coordination Committee made up of government ministries and Civil Society.
The stated aims of the NAP are to translate actions which will contribute to improving the “political, judicial, social, economic and professional conditions of women”.
See here why implementation time frames are important and useful.
See here for why lack of a dedicated budget is the foremost challenge to NAP implementation.
Theme: Country Context
Cote D’Ivore suffered civil war from 2002-2007 which divided the country between North and South, and continuing political unrest has seen elections related violence, resurgent armed conflict and grave human rights abuses. Conflict in Cote d’Ivoire has disproportionately affected women and children, who represent the majority of victims and internal displaced persons and refugees and face increased discrimination and vulnerability.
Sexual violence, torture, abduction and sexual slavery have been employed as weapons during the conflict and resurgences of armed violence by government forces and non-state armed; which has left a cultural legacy of violence against women. Sexual and gender based violence is a pervasive issue and its prevalence has strong correlations with the proliferation of weapons and armed groups, particularly in the West of the country. The United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Côte d’Ivoire has also been accused of sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls. Access to legal services and willingness to investigate and prosecute perpetrators perpetuates a climate of impunity for sexual violence and gender based violence crimes.
Though women were actively involved in organizing peaceful transformation during the civil war, they were excluded from formal peace-negotiation processes and represent a small minority of political representatives and public officials. Since the signing of the peace agreement in 2007 women’s peace organizations have continued to be integral agents in reconciliation, reconstruction, supporting democratization, peaceful elections and promoting of women’s participation in peace-process and political life.
The NAP is framed on the core components of UNSCR 1325, namely the protection of women and girls; increasing women’s participation in decision making processes, particularly as related to peace and security; and gender sensitivity in policies and programs.
The Ivorian NAP includes four ‘Priority Areas’, which include:
Priority Area 1. The protection of Women and Girls Against Sexual Violence and Female Circumcision
Priority Area 2. The Inclusion of Gender Considerations in Development Policies and Programs
Priority Area 3. The Participation of Women and Men in the Reconstruction and National Reinsertion Processes
Priority Area 4. Strengthening the Role of Women in the Decision Making Process.
Each Priority Area is linked with Strategic Issues and further broken down into Effect Results, Output Results and Actions. For example, Priority Area 1. 'The protection of Women and Girls Against Sexual Violence and Female Circumcision ' contains the following elements:
Strategic Objective: ‘All sexual violence and female genital mutilation against women drop significantly’
• Organizations and systems (mechanisms and procedures) for the prevention and fight against sexual violence are defined and implemented.
• The legal procedures for taking actions and repressing sexual offences are amended
• The attitude of the population toward sexual violence against women fosters the reduction of that violence
• The early warning system is created and is operational
• The psychosocial, medical and legal care organizations are established or strengthened
• The capacities of the justice system, defense and security forces, health and social affairs regarding sexual violence are built
• The victims access to protection mechanisms is effective
• Programs for the increase of grants for school girls are put in place
• Programs for micro credit, income generating activities are designed and implemented
• The knowledge of people about the issues of sexual violence is improved
• The implementation of early warning mechanism
• The establishment of a scientific police department mainly in charge of sexual violence issues
• The establishment of specialized multidisciplinary units
• The capacity building of organizations responsible for the psychosocial, medical and legal support
• The facilitation of access to medical care for the reduction, even the free care, for the victims of sexual violence
• The amendment of laws relating to sexual offences
• The capacity building of players in the police, gendarmerie, justice, social affairs and health sector in charge of sexual violence
• The establishment of a sectional and national database on sexual violence
• The establishment of a fund for women to develop income generating activities the establishment of a scholarship program for girls
• Communication for social behavioral change aimed at preventing sexual violence and fighting against the stigmatization of victims
Each of the relevant indicators is attached to a responsible actor and a separate ‘Logical Framework’, and also an estimated implementation cost in a separate ‘Resource Framework’. There are no time-frames for completion of relevant actions included and no allocated budget.
The Ivorian NAP does not include an allocated budget, but has an estimated cost of 3,694,400,00 F.CFA. A ‘Resource Framework’ is included as an appendix, which lists the total annual estimated costs of each specific activity and the Ministry responsible.
There is no inclusion of financial accountability mechanisms or time-frames for achieving relevant strategic results.
The NAP includes a Logical Framework which corresponds relevant activities with responsible ministries with data and verification sources. That NAP does not include a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation strategy, however the establishment of a monitoring system is costed in the Resources Framework appendix.
The Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the NAP in collaboration with Ministries of Planning and Development, Foreign Affairs, Justice and Human Rights, Economy and Finance, Defense, Interior, Solidarity and War Victims' Health and Public Hygiene, National Education, Reconstruction, Coordination.
The Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs is also charged with setting up and chairing a National Coordinating Committee comprised of government and civil society actors. This Committee reports to the Ivorian Government about the status of the NAP and publishes an annual progress reports. Semester reports are to be published by project-based monitoring and evaluation committees.
It is not stated in the NAP if these documents are to be made publicly available or disseminated beyond the National Coordinating Committee and concerned Ministries.
The NAP includes the provision of coordination, support and technical staff assigned to the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs to support monitoring and implementation.
The National Action plan is ‘open-ended’ and may be reviewed or revised at anytime, and relevant stakeholders may request the inclusion of additional measures. Stakeholders may make these requests to the A National Coordinating Committee who then must make a determination on their inclusion.
Theme: Civil Society Actors
The Cote d’Ivoire NAP’s design and implementation is overseen by the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs. Financial and technical assistance in development was provided by the government of Norway and UNDP, however there was no formal Civil Society engagement or consultation processes throughout the NAPs development.
The NAP defines Civil Society Organizations as participants in the monitoring and evaluating of NAP implementation, and also enables them to seek ad hoc inclusion of new indicators through the National Coordinating Committee.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations such as West Africa Network for Peacebuilding-Cote d’Ivoire are actively involved in supporting national implementation of UNSR1325 and overseeing the implementation of the NAP.
A range of new national women’s coalitions have been established to promote and defend women’s role in peace and reconstruction processes since the establishment of the NAP. This includes the Coalition of Women Leaders in Cote d’Ivoire, Organisation of Women for Peace (OFEP) and Organisation of Active Women of Cote d’Ivoire (OFACI).