Estonia developed a NAP in 2010 for the time frame of 2010 – 2014.
The NAP was developed by an Interdepartmental Working Group, comprised of representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defence, the Interior, Social Affairs, Justice, Education and Research, General Staff of the Defence Forces, Police and Border Guard, Rescue Board, Academy of Security Sciences and Civil Society Organizations.
The Estonian NAP has been interpreted in a largely international way, seeking to further mainstream the Women, Peace and Security in the context of international diplomacy, development cooperation, humanitarian assistance and international military and civil missions at the national and international levels. Domestically the NAP seeks to increase female participation in peacekeeping, national police, international humanitarian services and in senior leadership and decision making roles in the fields of peace and security.
The stated objective of NAP is to:
“Systematise and enhance Estonia’s efforts to implement Security Council resolution 1325 and its follow-up resolutions. The plan incorporates Estonia’s activities related to women, peace and security in the field of foreign policy, human rights, development cooperation and humanitarian assistance as well as international military and civil missions.
The Estonian NAP is organized by four Thematic Areas as follows:
• Political and diplomatic activities in international organizations
• Bilateral and multilateral development cooperation, and humanitarian assistance to improve the conditions of women in post-conflict situations
• Increasing the number of experts on gender issues and the provision of training for them, as well as increasing general awareness of women, peace and security in institutions dealing with peace and security
• Expansion of women’s opportunities to participate in international military and civil operations and increasing the representation of women in international positions related to the maintenance of peace and security
Each thematic area is prefaced by an explanation of the theme, relevant domestic, regional or international commitments and Estonia’s priorities in these areas. This is then broken down into a set of specific national and international activities. A separate indicators matrix is included as an annex to the NAP, which links national and international thematic area’s to an indicator to monitor implementation, and responsible actor.
For example, thematic area “Bilateral and multilateral development cooperation, and humanitarian assistance to improve the conditions of women in post-conflict situations” contains the following actions:
• Supporting the increase in the share of women in international positions related to conflict resolution and reconstruction, including as Special Representatives of the UN and EU, heads of mission and resident coordinators.
• Contributing to international discussions for the inclusion of the gender perspective in the recruitment mechanisms and conditions of service of international military and civil missions.
• Ensuring gender equality in domestic competitions for posts related to peace and security in Estonia as well as in international organisations.
• Consolidating information about suitable female candidates and facilitating the presentation of their candidatures for posts related to peace and security, where women are underrepresented
• Identifying factors affecting the participation of women in international missions, the Defence Forces and rescue and police service
• Analysis of measures that would enable increasing the participation of women in the Defence Forces as well as in international missions
• Organising awareness raising and recruitment campaigns targeted at women to identify participants for international missions.
• Organising targeted training courses for women in the Defence Forces, police and rescue service to increase their interest and skills to participate in international missions
• Contributions to multilateral programmes and funds engaged in the improvement of the situation of women and girls and the promotion of their rights.
• The share of development cooperation projects that take into account the needs of women and girls and have an impact on their situation in Estonia’s development cooperation activities.
Indicators are qualitative and quantitative in nature, but many activities are not linked to a measure. The actions are not time-framed and do not include an allocated or estimated budget.
The Estonian National Action Plan does not include an allocated or estimated budget, and instead states that “activities of the plan shall be carried out by using the available budget funds.”
No indicators or actions are included that formulate strategies for sourcing increased funding, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP.
The National Action Plan is to be implemented in cooperation with the representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defence, the Interior, Social Affairs, Justice, Education and Research, their agencies and Civil Society Organizations. An Interdepartmental Working Group is required to meet at least once annually, which will also include Civil Society representatives. These individual organizations are not specified.
Individual departments tasked with implementing the NAP are required to provide individual implementation reports annually. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is tasked with consolidating the reports in a single annual report.
A final report is due during the final year of the NAPs lifetime in 2014. Based on this final report the working group will formulate a list of recommendations and revise the NAP.
The implementation report for the period of 22 October 2010 – 31 December 2011 principally highlights activities undertaken and achievements- rather than providing a critical analysis, exploring weaknesses or setting out recommendations for furthering progress. The Baltic Defence College, the Ministries of Education and Research, Defence, Social Affairs, Foreign Affairs, the Estonian Atlantic Treaty Association and the Police and Border Guard Board participated in the review process.
Theme: Civil Society Actors
The NAP states that Civil Society were involved in the Interdepartmental Working Group that developed the NAP and have an ongoing role in the implementation body, however, the individual organizations are not acknowledged.
Women’s civil society umbrella’s such as the Estonian Women’s Associations Roundtable and regional coalitions, such as the European Women’s Lobby, work to strengthen women’s human rights and gender equality, focus on mainstreaming regional implementation of UNSCR 1325, and addressing common regional issues such as prostitution and human trafficking.