National Action Plan: Armenia

Armenia adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2019. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the goal to be implemented for the 2019-2021 period. Armenia’s NAP focuses heavily on increasing women’s participation in and awareness of the protection of women’s rights within the defense system (military, police, and peacekeeping missions). The NAP also puts particular emphasis on creating comprehensive programs to address the needs of women and girls impacted by or displaced as a result of conflicts. The NAP includes components on the international implementation of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda, especially in light of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. However, the document specifically states that Armenia considers the NAP “as a national mechanism for the protection and promotion of women’s rights in public life” (p. 2). 

Armenia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The country has been in an ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan since 1988 over the long-standing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict . The conflict has resulted in thousands of casualties as well as refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs). Even though a ceasefire was put into effect in 1994, there has been ongoing tension between the two countries. In 2016, conflict erupted again, resulting in casualties on both sides, and ended in a ceasefire. The conflict has had distinct gendered impacts, affecting women’s lives in the public and private realm alike. Women’s organizations have been at the forefront to demand an end to hostilities and establish peace. Despite their on-the-ground efforts, women have been excluded from high-level diplomatic negotiations. 

In 2018, Armenia was among the top 10 countries with the highest military burden (the military expenses as a share of the gross domestic product). That same year, Armenia’s military spending increased by 33%, with a total of $609 million spent on military expenses. Armenia joined the UN in 1992 and is a contributor to UN Peacekeeping Operations, with a total of 33 personnel serving in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) as of September 2019. Armenia is also a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program as well as being a contributor to NATO-led missions in Kosovo and Afghanistan as part of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) and Resolute Support Mission (RSM), respectively. Armenia has neither signed nor ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which regulates the flow of weapons across international borders. 

Document PDF: 

Armenia NAP (2019-2021)

WILPF

WILPF International does not have a country section in Armenia and therefore was not involved in the development process of Armenia’s NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development:

The NAP does not indicate civil society inclusion in the development of the NAP. 

NAP Implementation:

The NAP lists non-governmental organizations as a “co-executor” of 10 out of the 18 objectives listed. Additionally, objectives #2 and #7 listed under participation directly outlines a goal to “promote cooperation between governmental bodies, women’s organizations, and women affected by conflicts” (p.2, implementation matrix) and “collaboration with national institutions, local self-governing bodies, non-governmental organizations” (p. 4, implementation matrix), respectively. Despite this emphasis on civil society on both objective, non-governmental organizations are not listed as a “co-executor” on the implementation matrix of either objective.  

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:

The NAP indicates that a working group that consists of three ministries (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs) and three non-governmental organizations with “sufficient expertise and knowledge on issues related to Women, Peace and Security” (p. 10) will be established a year prior to the implementation of the NAP for monitoring and evaluation purposes. However, the NAP does not clearly indicate which NGOs will be a part of the working group. 

Government Actors

NAP Development:

The NAP was developed by Armenia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

NAP Implementation:

The NAP indicates that an Interagency Commission, composed of representatives from 12 ministries and government organizations will be responsible for implementing the NAP. These government actors are: Prime Minister’s Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Ministry of Economic Development and Investments, Ministry of Emergency Situations, Ministry of Territorial Administration and Development, Police of the Republic of Armenia, National Institute of Education of the Ministry of Education and Science, State Migration Service of the Ministry of Territorial Administration and Development, and Armeanian Red Cross Society. 

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:

The NAP indicates that a working group that consists of three ministries (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs) and three non-governmental organizations will be established a year prior to the implementation of the NAP for monitoring and evaluation purposes. 

Objectives

The NAP identifies 18 objectives, compiled under the four pillars of UNSCR 1325: participation, protection, prevention, and relief and recovery. On Armenia’s NAP, participation has seven objectives, protection has five objectives, prevention has four objectives, and relief and recovery has two objectives listed. For example, objective #2 listed under participation is: “Promote cooperation between governmental bodies, women’s organisations and women affected by conflicts, in the fields of conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding.” (p. 2, implementation matrix).   

Action/Activities

The NAP has a detailed implementation matrix that breaks down each objective with corresponding measures, time limit, performance indicators, responsible executor, co-executor, and funding source. For example, objective #2 listed under participation identifies “organization of state-supported awareness raising campaigns and programmes for women’s organisations and women affected by conflicts on such issues as conflict prevention, confidence building measures, peacebuilding, as well as the challenges and risks related to them” as an activity (p. 2, implementation matrix). 

Timeframe

The implementation period of the NAP is two years (2019-2021).

Budget

The NAP does not contain an allocated or estimated budget. Even though there is a “funding source” field for each objective, the field identifies “other sources not prohibited by law” for the funding source of each objective. 

Indicators

The NAP identifies several performance indicators for each objective, outlined on the implementation matrix. For example, objective #2 listed under participation identifies “ensuring more targeted activities within 1325 gender thematic group, including availability of seminars for women affected by conflicts” as a performance indicator (p. 2, implementation matrix). 

Monitoring & Evaluation

The NAP indicates that a working group that consists of three ministries (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs) and three non-governmental organizations will be established a year prior to the implementation of the NAP for monitoring and evaluation purposes. The group will assess the work being conducted and offer needed recommendations on an annual basis. The NAP does not provide further specifics on monitoring and evaluation. 

Disarmament

Even though Armenia has been in an ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh since 1988, the country’s NAP does not mention disarmament or demilitarization.