National Action Plan: Croatia

Croatia developed their NAP in 2011 for the period 2011-2014. As od November 2016, no new NAP has been presented. Development of the NAP was led by an interdepartmental working group coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Civil Society was invited to provide input into the drafted NAP, but had no representation in the Working Group. The objective of the Croatian National Action Plan is to help monitor and implement the goals set out by UNSCR 1325 locally, nationally, and internationally. The fact that Croatia has experienced conflict in the recent past accounts for a greater awareness of local issues and the need for specific actions to mitigate these crises in a way that accounts for gender awareness. Their efforts include establishing a working group, preparation and training for armed forces, and perhaps most uniquely, including the public by providing a public forum for opinions and comments to be made. The NAP also includes an extensive matrix mapping out the implementation process (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014).

Croatia is in a period of post-conflict transformation and reconciliation, following the 1991-1995 Serbo-Croatian war that followed the breakup of Yugoslavia. The conflict was characterized by gross human rights violations, including indiscriminate targeting of civilian areas, ethnic cleansing and mass rape, which displaced approximately 260,000 Croatians and killed 14,000 people, more than 40 percent of which were civilians. The conflict had distinct gendered dimensions. The majority of those actively engaged and killed in hostilities were men, which resulted in a sharp increase in the number of widows and women-headed households, considerably increasing the economic and caring burdens of women. Sexualized violence was employed as an explicit weapon and method of ethnic cleansing in Croatian occupied territories and Serbian detention camps. Internationally, Croatia is involved in peace keeping operations in addition to its domestic policy of substantial employment of of women in peace operations, both members of armed forces and of the police. 

 

Document PDF: 

Croatia analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

WILPF
WILPF International does not have a country section in Croatia and, therefore, was not involved in the development process of Croatia’s NAP.
Civil Society Actors

NAP Development
Civil Society was not involved in the Interdepartmental Working Group during the National Action Plan's development nor was it involved with supervisory and coordination functions. However, civil society organizations were invited to provide submissions to the draft NAP and are included throughout the NAPs text as partners in implementation.

NAP Implementation
The Croatian Women’s Network was established in 1999, and includes a broad range of women’s rights, feminist and anti-militarization organizations, many of which are involved in localizing various aspects of UNSCR 1325 and the related resolutions. Centar za Åenske studije (Center for Women's Studies) and Women in Black have been active in promoting UNSCR 1325 and the inclusion of feminist, anti-militarization approaches to its implementation.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
There are no specific civil society organizations mentioned in the Monitoring and Evaluation process, but there is a vague mention of civil society involvement for the Objective, "Encourage experience exchange on the national level concerning the implementation of Resolution 1325 and related resolutions" when the NAP states that the government will "cooperate" with civil society organizations.

Government Actors

The Croatian NAP gives a "Facilitator" for each action.

NAP Development
Most of the development was led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, with numerous ministries and government institutions' cooperation (see below).

NAP Implementation
Many Croatian ministries are tasked with implementing specific actions: Ministry of the Interior, Justice, Defense, Science, Education and Sport, Health and Social Security, Foreign Affairs and European Integration; Croatian Defense Register, Croatian Mine Action Centre, Family Affairs, Defenders and Intergenerational Solidarity, National Program of Psychological and Social Health Care for the Combatants and Victims in the Independence War, Judicial Academy, Government Office for Gender Equality, Office of the National Security Council, and the Human Rights Office of Croatian Government.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The NAP mentions the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and the Government Office for Gender Equality within the "Implementation and Monitoring" theme.

Objectives

The Croatian National Action Plan is organized by four thematic areas - Prevention, Participation, Protection and Post-Conflict Recovery, and Implementation and Monitoring - which are broken down into specific Objectives as follows:

  • Objective 1: Strengthening gender perspective through documents and participation in international activities for the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions.
  • Objective 2: Integration of gender perspective in the education programs for the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions.
  • Objective 3: Introduce gender balance in the activities of the security system.
  • Objective 4: Increasing the representation of women in decision-making activities and processes concerning security and peace building.
  • Objective 5: Implementation of the program of international development assistance for education about gender equality and the role of women in the protection of their rights and in the post-conflict recovery.
  • Objective 6: Promotion of the protection of the rights of women and girls – victims of gender-based violence in the areas of armed conflicts and after conflicts abroad.
  • Objective 7: Implementation of the protection of the rights of women and girls – war victims in the Republic of Croatia with a view to their post-conflict recovery.
  • Objective 8: Improvement of cooperation in the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions.
  • Objective 9: Supporting the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions.
Action/Activities

Each Objective within a theme contains a set of "Measures" (actions). For example, thematic area “Prevention” contains the following actions:

  • Encourage the participation of women in all forms of education related to the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions;
  • Conduct through pre-deployment training, in cooperation with civil society organisations, the education about resolution 1325 and related resolutions on the following subjects: women in war and post-war situations, violence against women and children, specific needs of local women;
  • Conduct through pre-deployment training, in cooperation with civil society organisations, the education about resolution 1325 and related resolutions on human rights and international humanitarian law, including: gender-based violence, sexual violence, trafficking in human beings;
  • Conduct education about resolution 1325 and related resolutions within the framework of the Diplomatic Academy of the MFAEI and within the framework of the preparations to be posted abroad in the diplomatic and consular network of the Republic of Croatia;
  • Conduct education of judicial staff with a view to raising awareness of women victims of armed conflicts and the importance of the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions in the operation of judicial bodies;
  • Conduct education of professional staff at health care establishments about resolution 1325 and related resolutions;
  • Continue education to raise awareness of heads of international peace-keeping operations of the need to protect the security of women and girls and children and their human rights;
  • Introduce education about elements of resolution 1325 and related resolutions into the curriculum of civil education at schools.
Timeframe

Croatia's NAP includes a Timeframe category, but does not specify beyond saying "permanently" for each action within each Objective.  The only mention of a specific date is in regard to the first action within Objective 1, thematic area "Prevention" - "Strengthening gender perspective through documents and participation in international activities for the implementation of resolution 1325 and related resolutions".  For this, they gave a timeframe:  "Last quarter of 2012". 

Budget
The Croatian NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget. No indicators or actions are included that formulate strategies to increase funding, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and spent while implementing the NAP.
Indicators

Each action within an Objective has an indicator attached.  For example, for thematic area "Protection and Post-Conflict Recovery", the following indicators are given:

  • Number of reported cases of gender-based violence
  • Number of conducted education courses for staff members of peace-keeping operations
  • Number of reported cases of gender-based violence
  • Number of proceedings conducted and sanctions passed
  • Number of women and girls included in the analysis
  • Number of analyses conducted
  • Number of women and girls killed by mines and cluster ammunition
  • Number of conferences, round tables conducted to raise awareness
  • Number of implemented programs of psychological and social rehabilitation
  • Number of program participants
  • Number of programs implemented in the social and development policies
  • Number of victims included in programs
Monitoring & Evaluation

The Interdepartmental Working Group established to develop the Croatian National Action will have an ongoing role in monitoring and evaluating its implementation. There is a monitoring and evaluation matrix included within the NAP, with each activity linked to a responsible actor, indicator and time-frame. All indicators are ququantitative only and most time-frames are 'permanently'. There is no provision for a formal ongoing role for Civil Society, although many of the NAP’s activities are to be implementation ‘in cooperation with Civil Society’. 

The Working Group is required to meet annually and prepare annual progress reports to be provided to the Human Rights Commission of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. It is not stated if these reports will be made publicly available.

Disarmament

The Croatian National Action Plan does not address disarmament issues, or connect the proliferation of weapons with women’s insecurity. The presence of unexploded ordinances is addressed in ‘Protection and Post Conflict Recovery’, with the inclusion of one measure as follows:

"Systematically point to the risk of land mines, cluster bombs and other explosive remnants of war because of their unacceptable effect, in humanitarian terms, on the civilian population, particularly on women and children."  The facilitator for such a measure is the Croatian Mine Action Centre.