National Action Plan: Denmark

Flag of Denmark

Denmark launched its first National Action Plan (NAP)  in 2005, making it the first country to develop a NAP.  In 2008, Denmark revised its NAP for the period 2008-2013. The revised NAP was developed by the Inter-Ministerial Working Group comprised of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defense and the Danish National Police. There is no Civil Society representation in this body. In 2014, Denmark revised their national action plan again and adopted a third NAP for the period of 2014-2019.

Denmark has no recent history of conflicts and thus, the Danish NAP has been interpreted in a largely international way, seeking to further mainstream Women, Peace and Security in the context of Denmark’s Humanitarian and peace operations, and peacebuilding and conflict prevention activities at the national, regional (European Union) and international levels.

From a recent academic analysis on Denmark's second national action plan: The revised Danish NAP is much more extensive and includes a section on ‘Achievements and Lessons Learned 2005-2007’. Amongst other lessons it mentions that the first NAP was not monitored comprehensively and thus advocates for a systematic monitoring through an inter-ministry working group. Another key lesson drawn was that the first plan focused mainly on the protection of women and devoted less attention to promoting women’s active participation in conflict solution and peace building. Thus, their second NAP attempts to pursue a more balanced approach in supporting protection and participation. (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014)

Document PDF: 

Denmark Revised NAP (2008-2013)

Norden in Afghanistan

Denmark analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

Denmark Revised NAP (2014-2019)

WILPF

Denmark’s section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom has been involved in a collaborative project between the women's peace organizations in Finland, Norway and Sweden to investigate the Nordic countries' implementations of their respective National Action Plans in the context of the invasion of Afghanistan. The results of this review found that greater research and evidence is required to coordinate and focus the implementation of UNSCR 1325 on the promotion of women’s rights in Afghanistan (see the attached document above).

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

The revised national action plan, that was developed through a substantial consultative process including the Danish government, civil society and NGOs, has guided the development of the third NAP which outlines the areas that will be given specific attention for the period of 2014 – 2019.

NAP Implementation

The Danish National Police are part of the implementation effort as members of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group (IMWG) representing  the Ministry of Justice.  Civil Society does not have representation in this Working group, but is able to take part in annual dialogue sessions which are to be used as a “forum to exchange views and discuss progress and experiences with implementation”, as described in the second NAP.

Outside formal processes, women’s organizations such as Women in Black and WILPF Denmark have been active in promoting UNSCR 1325 and the inclusion of feminist anti-militarization approaches to its implementation; as well as supporting women’s organizations and networks in their efforts to realize the intent and objectives of UNSCR 1325.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

There is no specific mention in the NAP of how civil society will be a part of the monitoring and evaluation process.

 

Government Actors

NAP Development
The revised Danish NAP does not specify any lead agents during the development process.

NAP Implementation
“The interventions of the Danish National Police during the period of 2014-2019 will primarily be a continuation of activities already initiated in the second National Action Plan”. In the second NAP, the role of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group on SCR 1325 was stated as being “responsible for reporting on the implementation of this revised NAP. The IMWG consists of members drawn from the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Justice, represented by the Danish National Police."

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

In the second NAP, it is stated that the Inter-Ministerial Working Group will meet on a "six monthly basis to consider interim progress reports on the status of the implementation of activities falling under the respective remits of the participating ministries." The working group will also produce an annual report that will track progress of the indicators mentioned.

In the third NAP, it is specified that the Ministry of Defence will draft a yearly evaluation report on the Diversity Policy and overall integration of gender perspectives in all tasks of the Danish Defence.

Objectives

The NAP focuses Denmark's priorities and actions through five main focus areas, which aim at improving both domestic and international capabilities in regards to women, peace and security. These have been formulated as follows:

  • Support the full and equal participation of women in prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction in accordance with SCR 1325.

  • Actively promote gender aspects of the Responsibility to Protect and transitional justice programmes to end impunity for sexual and gender based violence in conflicts.

  • Participate in the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding and focus on implementing the New Deal and its embedded five peace and statebuilding goals, which require systematic inclusion of a gender perspective.

  • Focus on promoting women as peacebuilders in specific country programmes in fragile and conflict-affected states with a particular focus on active involvement of multilateral actors.

  • Work to ensure that international operations and humanitarian efforts include a clear gender perspective.

These objectives are operationalized in actions pursuant to the responsible body of implementation and divided into geographical sections separating country specific actions from regional and international actions.

Action/Activities

The revised Danish NAP is broken down into three categories, within which are specific issues and actors responsible for a set of actions and activities. For example, the category ‘SCR 1325 in Denmark’s foreign, security and development policy’ associated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which contains the following actions:

  • Denmark will support the full and equal participation of women in prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction in accordance with SCR 1325.

  • Denmark will actively promote gender aspects of the Responsibility to Protect and transitional justice programmes to end impunity for sexual and gender based violence in conflicts.

  • Denmark will participate in the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding and focus on implementing the New Deal and its embedded five peace and statebuilding goals, which require systematic inclusion of a gender perspective.

  • Denmark will focus on promoting women as peacebuilders in specific country programmes in fragile and conflict-affected states with a particular focus on active involvement of multilateral actors.

  • Denmark will work to ensure that international operations and humanitarian efforts include a clear gender perspective.

The section also contains a list of country specific bilateral actions such as the example of Libya with the following action points:

  • While protection of women and children is central in the embassy’s policy dialogue, two particular issues will be highlighted in the bilateral cooperation as well as in the general interaction with relevant partners:

  • Women’s participation in decision-making in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.

  • Protection of women and children affected by the Syrian crisis. An alarming number of cases of both child marriages and rape of women and children are being reported and documented.
Timeframe
Denmark's NAP is for the period 2014-2019, but does not include specific timeframes for the actions and activities it outlines.
Budget

The Danish NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget. Several action points include references to funding, such as the 5 year goal for the Danish Defence to:  ‘include consideration of the gender perspective and women’s participation in civil-miliary projects e.g. participation in the funding of the building of separate facilities, including sleeping and sanitary facilities, for female students at the Afghan National Army Officers Academy’.

However, no indicators or actions formulate strategies for fundraising, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funds are raised and used to implement the NAP.

Indicators

The Danish NAP includes separate indicators for each action point relating to bilateral and multilateral cooperation as well as for strategies for humanitarian operations, the Danish Defence and the Danish Police.

For example, action point 1 for cooperation with the European Union states that Denmark will ‘work to ensure that gender aspects and in particular UNSCR 1325 aspects are part of future EU action plans and guidelines on security and development and fragile states’ which is measured by the following indicators:

  • 1a. Gender mentioned in country programming documents for fragile states.

  • 1b. Gender taken into consideration when CSDP missions and operations are planned.
Monitoring & Evaluation

In the second NAP, the Inter-Ministerial Working Group is stated as responsible for reporting on the implementation of the revised NAP. The Working Group is required to meet on a six monthly basis, to consider interim progress reports on the status of implementation of activities of the participating ministries; and to prepare annual NAP progress reports based on individual reports of the participating institutions.

The NAP does not provide for Civil Society involvement in monitoring and evaluation, but states that the Working Group will host annual dialogue sessions with Civil Society and share implementation reports with NGO’s and Civil Society actors. The second NAP states these reports will be made available online. The revised NAP does not include information on this.

In review of the second NAP, the following on monitoring and evaluation was noted in the third NAP: ‘A larger, internal mid-term monitoring exercise was carried out in 2011. Achievements and lessons learned were also regularly reported through Denmark’s input to the Report of the UN Secretary-General on women peace and security for the information of the members of the Security Council and The Report on the EU indicators for the Comprehensive approach to the EU implementation of the UN Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1820 on women, peace and security’

Disarmament

The third Danish NAP includes references to the importance of conflict resolution and prevention in the aim of fostering inclusive and equal societies as well as sustainable peace. There is no specific section on disarmament, but the following action points refer to the role of women in strengthening peace.

  • Denmark will support the full and equal participation of women in prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction in accordance with SCR 1325.

  • Actively promote gender aspects of the Responsibility to Protect and transitional justice programmes to end impunity for sexual and gender based violence in conflicts.

  • Participate in the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding and focus on implementing the New Deal and its embedded five peace and statebuilding goals, which require systematic inclusion of a gender perspective.

  • Focus on promoting women as peacebuilders in specific country programmes in fragile and conflict-affected states with a particular focus on active involvement of multilateral actors.

  • Work to ensure that international operations and humanitarian efforts include a clear gender perspective.