National Action Plan: Kosovo

The republic of Kosovo adopted their first NAP in March 2014 for the period of 2013-2015. The NAP was developed by central institutions of the Republic of Kosovo alongside members of civil society and supported by UN Women and OHCHR. The NAP is developed to have a human rights based approach.

Kosovo is in a post-conflict transformation phase of recovery and reconciliation following the 1998-1999 conflict between armed forces from Yugoslavia (consisting of Montenegro and Serbia) and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group. Marking the end of a NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999, the UNSC authorized the establishment of an international civil presence in Kosovo. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) was created with the aim of ensuring that the people of Kosovo “can enjoy substantial autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and which will provide transitional administration while establishing and overseeing the development of provisional democratic self-governing institutions to ensure conditions for a peaceful and normal life for all inhabitants of Kosovo”. Kosovo declared independence on February 17, 2008 which was contested by Serbia and several other UN Member States. The declaration of independence was however supported by the European Union and the US. Shortly after its adopted, the International Court of Justice ruled that the declaration of independence was in line with international law and peace talks  between Kosovo and Serbia began in 2011 where the EU acted as a mediator. The strategic objective of the UNMIK has since 2008 been the promotion of security, stability and respect for human rights. The government has committed to implementing the UNSCR 1325 and strengthened their support for the WPS agenda through the creating of the first NAP in 2014.

The Kosovo NAP does not include any language on disarmament or the links between militarisation and gender based violence.

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WILPF

WILPF International does not have a country section in Kosovo and therefore was not involved in the development process of its NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

The NAP was drafted through a multi-sectoral and all-inclusive approach which included the participation of  government representatives, representatives of judicial institutions and civil society as members of a working group responsible for the development of the NAP. The members of the working group drafting the NAP  worked alongside, and were supported by, UN Women and OHCHR.

NAP Implementation

The NAP is meant to be a flexible and dynamic document to adapted in line with national economic and social changes. The Kosovo Government institutions are the primary actors responsible for its implementation but civil society organisations, including women's groups, are noted as actors who work in a coordinated manner at both a central and a local level where they have made gender issues a priority issue in government policies and programs.

The NAP highlights the Kosovo Women's Network (KWN) consisting of 87 organizations representing women of all ethnic groups and communities in Kosovo. The KWN works on gender-based violence and providing advocacy groups and legal support.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

The NAP will change over the years as a result of lessons learned and challenges during the implementation process which will be set out in evaluation and monitoring reports.

A  coordination and monitoring unit for the implementation of the NAP was set up by Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Ms. Mimoza Kusari-Lila when the Agency for Gender Equality was defined as the institution responsible for monitoring the implementation. How the monitoring will take place is not concretely stated in the NAP.

The role of civil society is noted as ‘Civil society organizations have a strong commitment to promoting and monitoring the implementation of Resolution 1325 in Kosovo’. How civil society will assist in the monitoring of the NAP is however not described in detail in the NAP. 

Government Actors

NAP Development

The government of Kosovo started drafting the NAP in 2012 where the Agency on Gender Equality in the Office of the Prime Minister created a working group which started working on the draft.  The working group entailed 28 members and drafted the NAP through a ‘multi-sectoral and all-inclusive approach ensured by the participation of the central institutions of the Republic of Kosovo with senior officials and representatives of the judicial institutions and civil society’. The process was supported by UN Women and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).

NAP Implementation

The Working group establishes that the implementation of the NAP requires the coordination of governmental and non-governmental bodies. However, primary responsibility for implementing the NAP does lie with the Kosovo Government institutions.

The NAP was developed following the Kosovo Program for Gender Equality (KPGE)  which was a strategic document defining goals, objectives, policies and actors responsible for implementing gender equality in all fields of social and economic life in Kosovo from  2008 to 2013. The plan included strategic objectives and budgetary costs. The objectives included ‘increased participation of women in decision-making and in processes of building and preserving peace’.

The NAP also notes the role of ‘Gender equality officials’ which are appointed to all ministries and municipalities where they are responsible for drafting and implementation policies and activities promoting gender equality. They furthermore oversee the implementation of the Law on Gender Equality and strategic policies for gender equality, such as the KPGE, the Program against domestic violence, the Working Plan for economic empowerment etc.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

A coordination and monitoring unit for the implementation of the NAP was set up by Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Ms. Mimoza Kusari-Lila when the Agency for Gender Equality was defined as the institution responsible for monitoring the implementation. How the monitoring will take place is not concretely stated in the NAP.

Objectives

The main objectives of the NAP is to ‘promote the protection of women’s human rights, women in decision-making and the support that the Government will give Kosovo’s citizens, especially women and men who are victims of the war'.

There are also set 3 outcomes which all have individual outputs, activities and indicators assigned to them.  For example, Outcome 1, ‘Increased participation of women in decision making and peacekeeping and building processes’ has the following indicator:

  • Indicator 1a: percentage of women and girls in leadership and mangerial positions at central and local level.

  • Baseline: 13.1%

  • Target: 20%

The three outcomes are listed as the following:

Outcome 1: ‘‘Increased participation of women in decision making and peacekeeping and building processes’

Outcome 2: ‘Integrated gender perspectives in security affairs and increased women's participation in the security structures’

Outcome 3: ‘Survivors of sexual violence, torture, and other forms of violence associated with conflict/war have improved access to protection, access to justice, rehabilitation and reintegration

 

Action/Activities

For each of the three outcomes of the NAP, there are a separate set of indicators and individual outputs which have a set of activities and indicators as well as individual timeframes, implementation actors and budget estimation.

Pertaining to outcome 1, the first output (1.1) is on enhancing the capacities to implement UNSCR 1325 of national and local institutions in terms of gender mainstreaming in policy development and budgeting processes, there are several activities:

  • 1.1.1. Carrying out research on women's participation in central and local institutions, in political parties and the gender responsiveness of policy development, implementation and budgeting

  • 1.1.2 Training women and girls in political party forums and youth forums on the inclusion of a gender perspective into their political programs.
Timeframe

The timeframe of the Kosovo NAP is 2013-2015. Most activities listed have the same timeframe as the NAP itself. However, some have a specific year in which they are to be completed, for instance activity 1.1.2 'training women and girls in political party forums and youth forums on the inclusion of a gender perspective into their political programms' is to be completed in 2013 and 2014.

Budget

The NAP will be budgeted based on the annual and medium-term Kosovo budget and the assistance plan from donors in and outside Kosovo while taking into consideration the priorities set in discussions of the working group.

The NAP is also described as a mechanism for fund raising which can increase the commitment of international donors and partners to promoting the issue of women, peace and security in Kosovo.

The NAP states the budget as having the total cost of 1.667.260 euros and uncommitted costs as 830.327 euros. Every output also has a specific budget listed as an estimate. For instance, the cost of the first output (1.1) is on enhancing the capacities to implement UNSCR 1325 of national and local institutions in terms of gender mainstreaming in policy development and budgeting processes, is estimated at 22.980 euros with committed costs being 9697 euros and uncommitted costs at 13373 euros.  

Indicators

For each of the three outcomes of the NAP, there are a separate set of indicators and individual outputs which have a set of activities and indicators as well as individual timeframes, implementation actors and budget estimation.

The indicator for output (1.1) on enhancing the capacities to implement UNSCR 1325 of national and local institutions in terms of gender mainstreaming in policy development and budgeting processes, is listed as the following:

  • Number of draft policy documents with specific gender objectives and indicators

  • Baseline: 7 strategic documents have gender objectives

  • Target: all new drafts for government strategies and action plans have gender objectives and indicators
Monitoring & Evaluation

A  coordination and monitoring unit for the implementation of the NAP was set up by Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Ms. Mimoza Kusari-Lila when the Agency for Gender Equality was defined as the institution responsible for monitoring the implementation. How the monitoring will take place is not concretely stated in the NAP.

Disarmament

The Kosovo NAP does not include any language on disarmament or the links between militarisation and gender based violence.