National Action Plan: Rwanda

Flag of RwandaThe Rwandan NAP was developed for the period 2009-2012. The NAP’s development was led by the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion, in collaboration with different stakeholders from public, private, civil society institutions and United Nations Agencies. The process included a baseline study and participatory workshops which sought to identify the key priorities of the NAP. The NAP is strategically linked to existing efforts to mainstream gender and promote women’s role in political and security decision-making. The Rwandan NAP includes a background section outlining the basic institutional and legal framework of Rwanda, including details on the social welfare system of the country. It even identifies good practices such as adopting a National Gender Policy to illustrate the positive strides the country has taken prior to the adoption of a NAP. Moreover, it highlights six key challenges, of which the lack of a UNSCR 1325 NAP is one. The Rwanda NAP is the only NAP to include a chronogram illustrating a specific timeline for implementation. It also includes one of the most specific budget estimates, which is specified by sub-activity and year (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014).

 The NAP was developed within a post-conflict and recovery context, following the 1994 genocide. In 1994, members of the Hutu ethnic majority in Rwanda murdered about 800,000 people, mostly of the Tutsi minority. The genocide spread quickly. Local officials and the Hutu Power government incited people to take up arms. By the time the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic Front gained control of the country through a military operation in early July, and created 2 million more refugees (mainly Hutus) from Rwanda, exacerbating the humanitarian crisis.

While Rwanda's NAP quotes the UN Resolution calling on all states to control the flow of weapons and support disarmament, displacement, reconstruction, and reintegration efforts, the Rwandan NAP does not mention disarmament in any of its activities.

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

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Civil Society Monitoring Report

Rwanda analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

WILPF
WILPF International does not have a country section in Rwanda and therefore was not involved in the development process of Rwanda’s NAP.
Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

Civil Society was involved in the development of the Rwandan NAP which included Femme/Twese Hamwe, Umbrella Human Rights Associations (Collectif et Ligue des Associations des Droits de l’Homme), Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe National University of Rwanda, and Center for Conflict Management / CCM.

NAP Implementation

Civil Society has a clear ongoing role in the implementation and review of the NAP through the Steering Committee. The women’s organization Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe is the Secretariat of the Steering Committee board and the only Civil Society actor represented. The Priority area ‘Coordination, follow-up and evaluation of the activities’ also stipulates that the Steering Committee involves Civil Society in the implementation of the NAP. This is linked to a qualitative indicator only, (‘number of participants’) and does not enumerate the role, extent or method that Civil Society will be engaged in the implementation process.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Women’s Civil Society Organizations are also actively engaged in supporting implementation, oversight and monitoring of the NAP independent of formal government processes. For instance the Rwanda Women’s Network, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded a national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP which you can view here. In-Country Civil Society Monitoring Report Recommendations are as follows: While Rwandan women have played a positive role in lobbying for the revision of discriminatory laws, they should use the same strategies in order to fully participate in conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms. This analysis found it glaring that few women featured in peace negotiations, though women have been instrumental in driving forward peace and reconciliation processes within their communities. Civil Society should establish robust advocacy campaigns to ensure that the government and the international community are meeting their obligations to provide the necessary support and training for services at the local levels. They should also seek technical assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors and international NGOs to enhance capacity. The latter requires a sustainable partnership that is result oriented. Civil society should also monitor the national government on implementation and enforcement of relevant legislation, and quality of programming, and hold government accountable through whatever safe, effective means available (e.g., publications, media, demonstrations, meaningful engagement of international advocates). On its part, the government should consolidate related efforts being made by different government ministries and agencies and coordinate policies, programs, and monitoring and evaluation. It should seek to effectively implement and fully fund national policies and legislation to ensure women’s participation at all levels, through promoting community focused prevention of violence and conflicts which are community driven. This includes committing to programming that addresses harmful social and gender norms.

Government Actors

NAP Development

A Steering Committee comprised of ten ministries, Forum of Rwandan Women Parliamentarians, National Women Council, National Unity and Reconciliation Commission, National Human Rights Commission, Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, Center for Conflict Management/ National University of Rwanda - Drafting UNR, Center for Conflict Management / CCM, United Nations Women Development Fund, National Coordination Mechanism/Great Lakes International Conference, and the Gender Monitoring Office

NAP Implementation

The Rwandan NAP assigns government ministries to specific activities. These include: Ministries of Gender and Family Promotion, and Local Administration, National Women Council, GMO, Rwandan Defense Forces, Forum of Rwandan Parliamentarians, and the ministries listed above and below.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

A Steering Committee tasked with overseeing the monitoring and evaluation process is comprised of the following ministries: Gender and Family Promotion; Foreign Affairs; Defense; East African Community; Internal Security; Local Administration; Finance and Justice; Education; Health, and the Forum of Rwandan Women Parliamentarians

Objectives

The Rwandan NAP is organized into five "priorities". They are: Prevention of Gender-Based Violence Protection and Rehabilitation of Survivors’ Dignity Participation and Representation Women and Gender Promotion Coordination, Follow-up and Evaluation of the Activities.

Each priority has a "commitment" and a set of objectives. For example, for Priority III - "Participation and Representation" - they give the following commitments and objectives: Commitments Rwanda is ready to follow provisions of the Constitution concerning women’s participation in all decision-making organs; Rwanda will put in place specific mechanisms which encourage women’s participation in conflict prevention, management and conflict settlement Rwanda will ensure that women are represented in diplomatic and peace negotiation missions at national, regional and international level.

Objective

To reinforce women’s participation in peace building and security

Action/Activities

Each Priority Area has an accompanying set of "Expected Results" and "Activities". For example, Priority III - "Participation and Representation" - the following is given:

Expected Results

  • Educated women leaders participate actively in peace building processes
  • Number of women in decision making organs is increased in various institutions
  • Women with experience in peace and security areas are identified
  • Number of women who work efficiently in peace and security domains increased
  • Appropriate working conditions which contribute to women’s development are enhanced
  • Fruitful dialogue between women leaders and women at grassroots level is enhanced
  • Women are well informed about peace building and security reinforcement process
  • Successful synergy and coordination of the interventions
  • The national women council committee members (CNF) are trained on conflict prevention, management and conflict settlement techniques Activities
  • To encourage women leaders and reinforce their capacity to participate in peace building and security
  • To increase the number of women in decision making organs both for elected and appointed members
  • To create a databank on women with experience in peace and security areas
  • Recruit/Appoint women who work in peace and security areas and train them accordingly
  • Set up an environment conducive to women’s conditions
  • To put in place a permanent framework of dialogue between women leaders and women at the grassroots level
  • To organize a forum where information will be shared at least once a year on various decisions relating to peace and security
  • To reinforce partnership with various institutions specialized in conflict prevention and conflict management
  • To organize trainings for trainers through CNF structures
Timeframe
The Rwandan NAP covers the period 2009-2012, and a set of timeframes for specific activities can be found in the detailed budget. Years with designated funding, are years that the activity will be carried out, and likewise, years without funding the activity will be completed (or not begun).
Budget
Rwanda's NAP offers one of the most detailed budgets. An estimated financial year cost for each specific activity is included as an annex ‘Budget Estimates for Activities and Running Costs’. For example, the first activity in Priority 1, "To carry out a gender analysis of Rwandan policies relating to defence and homeland security and to make recommendations", is given the following budget: 2009-10: $15,000 USD 2010-11: - 2011-12: - Total: $15,000 USD
Indicators

An indicator is given for each activity in Rwanda's NAP. For example, under Priority 1 - "Participation and Representation" - the following indicators are given:

  • Number of women leaders trained and participating in building peace and security
  • The number of women in decision making organs is increased
  • Databank on women with experience in peace and security areas is available
  • The number of women who have been recruited or appointed to in peace and security positions
  • Number of women who have been trained in peace and security and the quality of that training
  • Number of infrastructures adapted to women’s conditions
  • A permanent framework of dialogue between grassroots women’s’ leaders for operational
  • Number of peace and security forums organized
  • Types of conflict prevention and conflict management partnerships formed
  • Number training participants and sessions for CNF and training manual
Monitoring & Evaluation

Coordination, Follow-up and Evaluation is the Rwandan NAP's fifth Priority Area. Activities include the provision of quarterly reports and to provide an annual evaluation reports and the development of a monitoring and evaluation system. It is not stated in the NAP if these documents are to be made publicly available or disseminated beyond the Steering Committee and concerned Ministries.

A Steering Committee was established with the mandate to follow up the implementation of the above action plan also comprised of public, private, civil society institutions and United Nations Agencies. The Steering Committee is chaired by a Board made up of: Chairperson: Minister of Gender and Family Promotion; First Deputy Chairperson: Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Second Deputy Chairperson: Ministry of Defence; Third Deputy Chairperson: Forum of Rwandan Women Parliamentarians; Secretariat: Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe.

Pro Femmes/Twese Hamwe is the only Civil Society actor represented. The Rwanda Women’s Network, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded an independent national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP which you can view here.

Disarmament
While Rwanda's NAP quotes the UN Resolution calling on all states to control the flow of weapons and support disarmament, displacement, reconstruction, and reintegration efforts, the Rwandan NAP does not mention disarmament in any of its activities.