The Rwandan NAP was developed for the period 2009-2012 and is set within a post-conflict and recovery context, following the 1994 genocide.
The NAP’s development was led by the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion, in collaboration with different stakeholders from public, private, civil society institutions and United Nations Agencies. The process included a baseline study and participatory workshops which sought to identify the key priorities of the NAP. The NAP is strategically linked to existing efforts to mainstream gender and promote women’s role in political and security decision making.
Strategic objectives of the NAP are to:
• To reinforce the capacity of women in peace and security matters
• Foster community dialogue
• Create a network of stakeholders working together for a common goal
• Research, advocacy, dissemination of laws and sensitization
• Effective use of existing structures
• Coordination of activities
• Follow-up of activities and evaluation of impact
• Production of narrative and periodical reports
See here why time frames are useful and important.
The NAP does not have a dedicated budget. See here for why lack of a dedicated budget is the foremost challenge to NAP implementation.
Theme: Country Context
Rwanda is undergoing a period of post conflict reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction following the 1994 genocide that took the lives of some 800,000 Rwandan’s.
During genocide, Rwandan women were subjected to sexual violence on a massive scale, perpetrated by members of the Hutu militia, other civilians, and national security forces. The use of sexual violence, which included sexual mutilation, forced pregnancy, rape and sexual slavery, was systematic and employed as a form of ethnic cleansing, to impregnate victims, infect them with HIV or render them infertile. Men and boys were the principle targets of summary execution, many of who were forced to rape their female relatives before being murdered. These stark gendered differences have left women as the majority of the population, many of whom are widowed. In addition to the psychological trauma and health consequences, women face economic hardships by virtue of patriarchal norms, subordination of women under the law and the stigma attached to rape means many survivors and widows are trapped into poverty.
Rwanda’s geographical position in the Great Lakes region has enabled former regime militia groups, to continue to operate across the boarder regions, posing a persist threat to peace and security in the country. Rwanda is also exposed to complex intra-state conflicts, and non-state armed groups. While Rwandan society continues processes of reconciliation, reconstruction and national healing, sexual violence continues to be employed by armed militia groups. The cultural legacy of violence against women means gender based violence and sexual violence continue to be pervasive issues in non-conflict affected areas.
Though women have been involved in conflicts hostile agents, Rwandan women primarily acted to build peace and end armed conflicts through community organizing and local efforts to persuade men to abandon armed solutions to conflict. The salience of women’s role in peace building and reconciliation has elevated the role of women as peace makers in the national consciousness. Despite the importance of women’s efforts, women in Rwanda have been marginalized in all formal peace negotiation processes since 1993.
Given the difficult task of national reconciliation and advancing gender equality, The NAP is linked to existing efforts to mainstream gender, prevent all forms of violence against women and promote women’s role in political and security decision making.
This NAP is subdivided into five Priorities components, and includes references to the relevant UNSCR1325 text. The Priority components are as follows:
Priority 1: Prevention of gender - based violence
Priority 2: Protection and Rehabilitation of Survivors’ dignity
Priority 3: Participation and representation
Priority 4: Women and gender promotion
Priority 5: Coordination, follow-up and evaluation of the activities
Each of the five Priority areas includes a stated Commitment; outlines a set of Objectives, which are then linked to Expected Results, Activities, Indicators and the Institution in Charge. For example, Priority I ‘Participation and representation’ contains the following elements:
• Rwanda is ready to follow provisions of the Constitution concerning women’s participation in all decision-making organs
• Rwanda will put in place specific mechanisms which encourage women’s participation in conflict prevention, management and conflict settlement
• Rwanda will ensure that women are represented in diplomatic and peace negotiation missions at national, regional and international level.
To reinforce women’s participation in peace building and security
• Educated women leaders participate actively in peace building processes
• Number of women in decision making organs is increased in various institutions
• Women with experience in peace and security areas are identified
• Number of women who work efficiently in peace and security domains increased
• Appropriate working conditions which contribute to women’s development are enhanced
• Fruitful dialogue between women leaders and women at grassroots level is enhanced
• Women are well informed about peace building and security reinforcement process
• Successful synergy and coordination of the interventions
• The national women council committee members (CNF) are trained on conflict prevention, management and conflict settlement techniques
• To encourage women leaders and reinforce their capacity to participate in peace building and security
• To increase the number of women in decision making organs both for elected and appointed members
• To create a databank on women who have experience in peace and security areas
• To recruit/ appoint women who work in peace and security areas and to train them accordingly
• Set up an environment conducive to women’s conditions
• To put in place a permanent framework of dialogue between women leaders and women at the grassroots level
• To put in place a permanent framework of dialogue between women leaders and women at the grassroots level
• To reinforce partnership with various institutions specialized in conflict prevention and conflict management
• To organize trainings for trainers through CNF structures
• Number of women leaders trained and participating in building peace and security
• The number of women in decision making organs is increased
• Databank on women with experience in peace and security areas is available
• The number of women who have been recruited or appointed to in peace and security positions
• Number of women who have been trained in peace and security and the quality of that training
• Number of infrastructures adapted to women’s conditions
• A permanent framework of dialogue between grassroots women’s’ leaders for operational
• Number of peace and security forums organized
• Types of conflict prevention and conflict management partnerships formed
• Number training participants and sessions for CNF and training manual
Each Activity is correlated with the responsible stakeholder, and an estimated cost for implementation, which is included in a separate budget estimate. There are not time-frames for completion included.
The Rwandan NAP does not have a dedicated budget, but estimates the total cost of implementing the NAP to be $9,056,000 USD. The NAP states that all relevant activities associated with the implementation of the NAP will be integrated in the existing budgets for institutions. An estimated financial year cost for each specific activity is included as an annex ‘Budget Estimates for Activities and Running Costs’.
Coordination, follow-up and evaluation are built into the Rwandan NAP’s priority areas. Activities include the provision of quarterly reports and to provide an annual evaluation reports and the development of a monitoring and evaluation system.
It is not stated in the NAP if these documents are to be made publicly available or disseminated beyond the Steering Committee and concerned Ministries.
A Steering Committee was established with the mandate to follow up the implementation of the above action plan also comprised of public, private, civil society institutions and United Nations Agencies. It is comprised of the following institutions:
Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Defense
Ministry of the East African Community
Ministry of Internal Security
Ministry of Local Administration
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Health in addition to the
Forum of Rwandan Women Parliamentarians
United Nations Women Development Fund
The Steering Committee is chaired by a Board made up of:
Chairperson: Minister of Gender and Family Promotion;
First Deputy Chairperson: Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Second Deputy Chairperson: Ministry of Defence;
Third Deputy Chairperson: Forum of Rwandan Women Parliamentarians;
Secretariat: Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe.
Pro Femmes/Twese Hamwe is the only Civil Society actor represented.
The Rwanda Women’s Network, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded an independent national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP which you can view here.
Theme: Civil Society Actors
Civil Society was involved in the development of the Rwandan NAP which included Femme/Twese Hamwe, Umbrella Human Rights Associations (Collectif et Ligue des Associations des Droits de l’Homme), Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe National University of Rwanda, and Center for Conflict Management / CCM.
Civil Society has a clear ongoing role in the implementation and review of the NAP through the Steering Committee. The women’s organization Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe is the Secretariat of the Steering Committee board and the only Civil Society actor represented.
The Priority area ‘Coordination, follow-up and evaluation of the activities’ also stipulates that the Steering Committee involves Civil Society in the implementation of the NAP. This is linked to a qualitative indicator only, (‘number of participants’) and does not enumerate the role, extent or method that Civil Society will be engaged in the implementation process.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations are also actively engaged in supporting implementation, oversight and monitoring of the NAP independent of formal government processes. For instance the Rwanda Women’s Network, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded a national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP which you can view here.
In-Country Civil Society Monitoring Report Recommendations are as follows: