NAPs have the potential of being an effective tool for the implementation of the spirit of UNSCR 1325 only if a comprehensive process is undertaken. They must be recognized as a means to an end rather than an end in and of themselves. In this regard, the participation of civil society and women’s organizations in making international policy and law work for women is vital.
Ten civil society organizations and three specific organizations (CARE Austria, University of Vienna – Department of International Relations, and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights) were consulted prior to the development of the first NAP, and although it was mandated in the NAP, Civil Society were not provided opportunity to have input into the review that informed the current revised NAP.
Civil society has an ongoing specified role in providing input on specific cases and to annual reporting. The first and revised NAP articulate that the Inter-ministerial Working Group must hold at least one meeting In with Civil Society each year, however Civil Society implementation reviews have noted that although the Inter-ministerial Working Group has been accessible to Civil Society on an ad hoc basis, the requirement to schedule formal meetings had not been met. Further, although required in the NAP, implementation reviews for the first NAP were conducted without Civil Society consultation.
Civil Society also has a role outside the limited formal mechanisms specified in the NAP, particularly through oversight, promoting UNSCR 1325, education and training, as well as cooperation and support with international organizations and women at the grass roots level. Civil Society in Austria has lacked coordination, and in recognizing this in 2008 CARE Austria initiated the informal Group of Friends of UN SCR 1325, which has met on a semi-regular basis with government ministries and civil society groups.
In the Netherlands, Civil Society organisations have been directly involved in the ongoing process of NAP development, monitoring and evaluation.
As a result the revised NAP (2011) embodies an ongoing and collaborative project involving government, knowledge institutions and civil society, something that is unique in the formulation of NAPs worldwide.
The Dutch Gender Platform WO=MEN (www.wo-men.nl) was created to function as the national coordination point for civil society organizations on NAP development, implementation and monitoring, providing civil society with an opportunity to exchange experiences and formulate joint recommendations for implementation moving forward.
Civil Society is also involved through its presence in the NAP WG which consists of a range of representatives from Dutch NGOs, 2 representatives from Ministry of Foreign Affairs and one from the Ministry of Defence. Here, Civil Society is able to provide support through the monitoring and voicing of policy recomendations whilst participating in processes undertaken to evaluate NAP implementation.
Civil society were involved in the evaluation of the first NAP and development of the revised NAP through the representation in the Follow-Up Group and Interdepartmental 1325 Steering Committee. Broader Civil Society were offered opportunity to comment and provide input into the various draft NAP’s developed by the Interdepartmental 1325 Steering Committee.
The 1325 Network is a Civil Society body comprised of human rights, and gender equality organizations and independent members from academia. The 1325 Network was established in 2006 to lobby for more effective implementation of Resolution 1325 in Finland and the adoption of a NAP to coordinate such efforts. The 1325 Network were unsuccessful in securing an allocated budget for the NAP, but successfully sought the inclusion of the following elements within the NAP:
• High quality gender training to be incorporated into training for Finish citizens sent to perform crisis management training.
• Funding and Women Peace and Security research and utilizing evidence based practice
• Supporting women’s organizations in conflict affected areas.
The objective of the network is to enhance the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in Finland, and plays an important oversight role in monitoring the implementation of the NAP. The 1325 Network also funds and disseminates research and publications and conducts training and seminars regarding Women, Peace and Security.
The 1325 Network includes the following organizations
UN Women Finland
Finnish League for Human Rights
Amnesty International’s Finnish Section
Civil Society Conflict Prevention Network
The Family Federation
Feminist Association Union
NYTKIS, The Coalition on Finnish Women’s Associations
National Council of Women in Finland
UN Association of Finland
Crisis Management Initiative
YWCA, Young Women’s Christian Association
Women Journalists in Finland
Finnish Section of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
In 2010 the 1325 Network conducted a review of Finland’s first NAP, highlighting key successes, particularly in regard to efforts to support National Action Plans internationally and mainstream gender in crisis management programs. Points of concern include the lack of departmental budgets for implementation of the NAP, despite the requirement for Ministries to provide appropriate financing; and the lack of indicators for monitoring evaluation.
Although, There is currently no independent civil society monitoring process for the implementation of the Spanish NAP, certain NGOs have been involved in consults on NAP development and implementation and have been given consultative status with the Inter-Ministerial Group for monitoring and evaluation of SCR 1325 implementation.
One of the pillars of the Spanish NAP is to encourage CSO participation in the implementation of SCR 1325.
The Ugandan NAP was developed by the Ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development, and there was some Civil Society involvement in the development of the indicators. Unlike other NAPs, there is no provision for an ongoing formalized role for Civil Society in the implementation or monitoring of the NAP.
The NAP establishes strategic actions to increase the role of Civil Society organizations in the formulation and implementation of policy and strengthen technical expertise and capacity. Civil Society are also provided responsibility throughout for various activities such as data collection, reporting, education and service delivery.
There is also one women’s Civil Society Organization represented in the UN Joint Programming on Gender.
Although there is no explicitly stated ongoing role for Civil Society, the NAP does sit within broader national gender machinery and forms part of the Ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development’s strategic objectives.
The Government established the SGBV Reference Group under the leadership of the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development, which includes Civil Society representatives.
National Women’s Task Force on a Gender Responsive Peace, Recovery and Development Plan does not include civil society representatives, but works with the UNSCR 1325 Civil Society Taskforce. Civil Society established the UNSCR 1325 Civil Society Taskforce in 2009 to monitor the implementation of the NAP. The establishment of the Taskforce was led by Center for Women in Governance and coordinated by the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders.
Civil Society has produced comprehensive annual monitoring reports, the most recent of which concluded the following recommendations:
Recommendations for Women's Participation in Governance:
Recommendations for Prevention and Protection:
Recommendations for Promoting a Gendered Perspective:
The NAP was developed with a rigorous process of inclusive consultation and participation involving roundtable discussions and bi-lateral interviews. The process engaged the views of a broad range of civil society actors, including women’s organizations, media, private micro credit institutions, interfaith institutions, donors and rural women.
The NAP states that the objectives of the interviews and discussions were to: “assess issues affecting women’s peace and security, map women’s positions and decision-making power in the institutions and agencies, identify projects directly or indirectly related to 1325 and in the process, raise awareness and promote knowledge of the letter and intent of the resolution and its principles regarding women’s peace and security issues”.
In addition to the development and consultation phase of the NAP, Civil Society also has an ongoing role in implementation, oversight and review through the Civil Society Monitoring Observatory. This body will include women’s organizations and will prepare a shadow report at the end of the four year term of the NAP.
Civil society will also play a role in the Technical Monitoring and Evaluation Task Force, which includes government.
Outside the formal processes elaborated in the NAP, Civil Society has an important informal role to play in supporting implementation and providing an oversight role. The following recommendations were concluded on behalf of Liberia's In-Country Civil Society Monitoring Report:
1. Government should improve efforts to identify and mentor qualified women for appointed positions in national and local leadership.
2. The government should conduct an evaluation of the progress made in implementing policies and action plans related to women, peace and security issues. This evaluation should take into consideration achievements, weaknesses and opportunities for program strengthening.
3. The Security Sector should continue to work on reaching and exceeding the 20% policy goal of women’s participation.
4. Government should rededicate themselves to the implementation of the National Gender Policy, as well as all other gender-related policies including the National Gender Based Violence Plan of Action.
5. The Law Reform Commission, the Legislature and all other relevant government parties should improve the incorporation of the Rape Act and the Inheritance Act into the Liberian Penal Code, especially with regard to the contradictory age of consent question.
6. The development agenda, both nationally and internationally, should prioritize building the capacity of local stakeholders, including female chiefs and other traditional leaders, to monitor and support programs seeking to improve the economic livelihood and participation of rural women.
7. Existing efforts to develop the skills of media practitioners, including women in gender sensitive reporting should continue to be built on.
8. Government and other organizations should work with the Press Union of Liberia and with local universities to design advanced gender educational programs for editor and managers.
9. The government and other organizations should support mentorship and scholarship programs for female journalist including those working at community radios.
10. A code of conduct should be developed in consultation with civil society and all other relevant stakeholders, to address sexual harassment and other forms of gender –based violence in the media.
Civil Society has no formally designated ongoing role in the implementation, monitoring or evaluation of the National Action Plan. The National Steering Committee on Women, Peace and Security does not include any representatives from Civil Society. However, the Steering Committee has pledged to partner with Civil Society Organizations in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the NAP. To this end the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process has disbursed funds to selected peace and women's organizations including Indigenous women's groups to implement various provisions of the NAP.
Joint National Steering Committee, NGO discussions on how to implement baseline data gathering and information dissemination have also been held.
Civil Society's major involvement in the development and implementation of the Philippine's NAP has been through the formation of the Women Engaged in Action on 1325 (WE ACT 1325). This Civil Society' working group was created to aid the Government on NAP implementation and provide an oversight role. WE ACT 1325 is made up of a national network of women's organizations, headed by the Sulong Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law and the Center for Peace Education.
In 2011, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders, WE ACT 1325 produced a Civil Society Monitoring Review. The review expressed concern about the poor coordination, lack of resources and transparency in Women Peace and Security related expenditure have contributed to the slow and uneven progress of the NAP's implementation. A summary of the recommendations made in the report are as follows:
Recommendations for Philippine Government
• Government, particularly the Philippine Commission on Women, the Philippine National Police, the Judiciary and the Department of Justice should keep track of, record, and make available data on SGBV cases investigated, referred, prosecuted and penalized.
• Government should consider the recommendations of the Zenarosa Commission to have an effective gun control program that would codify all existing laws and measures that would regulate the possession, manufacture, smuggling, importation and exportation of arms and ammunitions in the country.
• Government, particularly the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, should formulate policies under the Social Integration Program that would address women’s rights in situations of armed conflict in accordance to what is stipulated in the Comprehensive Agreement on the Respect of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law
• Pass an Executive Order institutionalizing gender education into the basic education and teacher education curricula.
• The Social Integration Program of the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, should have a distinct economic package for women ex-combatants.
• The office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process should continue supporting projects on an annual basis to implement the NAP on UNSCR 1325 through the Projects for Peace
• Government agencies should be required to submit an annual report to the Philippine Commission on Women and Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process on how the Gender and Development budget was allocated and spent.
Recommendations for Civil Society
• Actively lobby the government to implement UNSCR 1325, beginning with the appointment of more women in the executive branch of government and in peace negotiations with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
• Actively urge the Moro Islamic Liberation Front to include women members to its negotiating panel;
• Conduct wide-ranging voter education campaign focusing on the need to elect more women to Parliament and local government
• Initiate consciousness raising programs and activities focusing UNSCR 1325 and the requirement to include women in governance and in addressing conflict, peace and security issues.
• undertake regular research on violations of gender issues addressed in the the Comprehensive Agreement on the Respect of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law and report findings to the public
• lobby the Government of the Republic of the Philippines- National Democratic Front negotiating panels to integrate gender perspectives in the Comprehensive Agreement on Socio-Economic Reforms;
• Civil society should lobby Government of the Republic of the Philippines and Moro Islamic Liberation Front negotiating panels to adopt the proposed Mindanao Women’s Framework or Civilian Protection.
Recommendations for the United Nations
• The UN Security Council should mandate member-states to report on the inclusion and increased participation of women in peacekeeping missions
• The UN and Security Council should require Foreign Ministry offices to report on states’ compliance to UNSCRs1325 and 1820, specifically on the provision of official pre-deployment and post-deployment programs and trainings given to peacekeepers, which relate to UNSCRs 1325 and 1820.
Recommendations for Armed Groups
• The armed combatants, specifically the National Democratic Front and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines should report on their compliance to gender issues addressed in the Comprehensive Agreement on the Respect of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law.
You can view the full report here.
Country: Democratic Republic of Congo
The Representative for the Prime Minister, Olivier Kamitatu, the Minister for Gender, Family and Child, the Vice-Minister responsible for the Budget and other Government Members signed the Engagement Act, ensuring Civil Society that they would be involved in DRC's implementation of the NAP and SCR 1325.
This document was produced by a coalition of Civil Society organisations and represents their participation in the development of DRC's NAP.
Country: United Kingdom
Both UK NAPs were developed through consultation with civil society, in the UK as well as Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Nepal. The Government has also commited to ongoing collaboration with civil society to ensure effective implementation and reporting on results is achieved.
Many UK NGOs and women's organisations were involve in the development process and in particular Womankind Worldwide who chairs the Gender Action for Peace and Security coalition (GAPS). This organisation published a Report on the revision process in February 2012 which provided policy recommendations for NAP implementation.
"Womenkind Worldwide welcomed the opportunity to participate in the consultation and revision process. There has been a good level of engagement with civil society, both in the UK and in the countries of the bi-lateral sections. There has been increased accountability to parliamentarians, through the reporting on the NAP to the Associate Parliamentary Group on Women, Peace and Security".
Further, "Womankind welcomes the consultation with civil society and national governments through the NAP revision process, and further welcomes the commitment to annual reporting".
Civil Society was involved in the development of the Rwandan NAP which included Femme/Twese Hamwe, Umbrella Human Rights Associations (Collectif et Ligue des Associations des Droits de l’Homme), Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe National University of Rwanda, and Center for Conflict Management / CCM.
Civil Society has a clear ongoing role in the implementation and review of the NAP through the Steering Committee. The women’s organization Pro Femme/Twese Hamwe is the Secretariat of the Steering Committee board and the only Civil Society actor represented.
The Priority area ‘Coordination, follow-up and evaluation of the activities’ also stipulates that the Steering Committee involves Civil Society in the implementation of the NAP. This is linked to a qualitative indicator only, (‘number of participants’) and does not enumerate the role, extent or method that Civil Society will be engaged in the implementation process.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations are also actively engaged in supporting implementation, oversight and monitoring of the NAP independent of formal government processes. For instance the Rwanda Women’s Network, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded a national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP which you can view here.
In-Country Civil Society Monitoring Report Recommendations are as follows:
Country: Sierra Leone
Civil Society were extensively involved in the development of the NAP through pre-drafting lobbying and advocacy and then through the Government- Civil Society Task Force. The Task Force included the following Civil Society representatives.
• Civil Society Movement
• The 50/50 Group
• Sierra Leone Women's Forum
• Gender Research and Documentation Center of the University of Sierra Leone
• Sorotipmist International Club
• Women in Peacebuilding Network (WIPNET)
• Mano River Women's Peace Network (MARWOPNET)
• Sierra Leone Labor Congress
• International Alert
• Justice Sector Coordinating Office ( JSCO)
• Sierra Leone Association of Non Governmental Organizations
• Campaign for Good Governance
• Sierra Leone Association of Journalists
The NAP was developed in close partnership between government and Civil Society Organizations and it is articulated within the NAP that full implementation must to continue adopt the same inclusive approach. Beyond an ongoing strong role through the Government- Civil Society Task Force, which is elaborated in Pillar IV, there are no further strategies articulated.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations are also actively engaged in supporting implementation, oversight and monitoring of the NAP independent of formal government processes. For instance Women's Civil Society, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) concluded a national monitoring review on implementation of the NAP, which made the following recommendations:
Lead efforts in partnership with the National Task Force on NAP 1325 to mobilise resources and institutionalise operations of the National Steering Committee for the coordination of the full implementation of UNSCRs 1325 and 1820 as mapped out in the NAP 1325 and 1820.
Intensify actions to coordinate with other Ministries, Departments, Agencies and structures in Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Internal Affairs and Local government, Lands and Environment, Education and Health, for instances, in the engagement with women, gender, peace and security issues.
Earmark resources from its quarterly allocations and other sources for routine monitoring of implementing gender perspectives in MDA’s policies and continuous sex dissagregated data collection, including documentation for reporting and accountability on women gender, peace and security matters.
Coordinate with the Ministry of Finance and Development as well as the Statistics Sierra Leone to ensure that sex disaggregated data on budget allocations and spending on peace building, peace and security consolidation processes and interventions are collected and published.
Development partners, particularly the UN Country Gender Team, Bilateral Agencies and Institutions to support technically and to allocate resources to women’s organizations at national and community levels, in efforts of institution building and strengthening of succession planning in peace and security fields
Civil Society participated in consultations following the Canadian governments drafting on the NAP. There was a significant delay in this consultation phase and the release of the NAP, in which Civil Society groups continued to lobby for it’s speedy adoption.
There is no joint Civil Society / government task force or mechanism for ongoing Civil Society engagement. Civil Society has no representation in the Interdepartmental Working Group on Women, Peace and Security. The NAP states that Civil Society engagement will be sought throughout the NAP’s lifetime, however, the Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group has reported that attempts to engage with and participate in the Working Group have been unsuccessful.
Civil Society has taken an active role independent of these formal processes. In 2009 Peacebuild established the Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group, which is active in monitoring and promoting the implementation of UNSCR1325. Civil Society has been critical of the Canadian governments declining commitment to the implementation of UNSCR1325.
In its most recent Civil Society Monitoring report the Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group made the following recommendations:
• Full and transparent reporting on all indicators in the National Action Plan is possible in 2012.
• Dedicated resources and accountability mechanisms
• Senior leadership on the NAP
• More critical reporting and analysis of implementation efforts and plans for
• Annual progress reports should be tabled in both houses of Parliament and should be reviewed by a parliamentary committee.
• Funding to organizations that promote the full and equal participation of women including women’s rights organizations in Canada and internationally,
• Consistent, explicit commitments as expressed in the National Action Plan should inform and be reflected in major diplomatic, defense and development policy and programs
• Clear policy direction should be provided to all relevant government departments indicating requirements and accountability structures on women, peace and security issues.
Civil Society was involved in the development of the NAP and has a formal ongoing role in implementation, monitoring and evaluation through representation in the High Level Steering Committee, and also the District Level Committees. Those Civil Society Organizations designated a formal role include:
• The Women's Welfare Society
• Institute of Human Rights Communication Nepal
• Shanti Malika
• Beyond Beijing Committee
• Women’s Peace Group
• Women Security Pressure Group Member
• Women’s Network for Peace, Power, Democracy and the Constituent Assembly
• Rural Women’s Development and Unity Centre
• Women for Human Rights, Single Women’s Group
• Nepal Society Development Centre
Civil Society also plays an important role outside official processes, in supporting local implementation, promotion, education and oversight. For instance, the women’s organization Saathi has completed annual monitoring reviews, and in 2011 made the following recommendations:
• Women’s quality participation, representation and leadership in all state machineries must be ensured and measured by substantive equality rather than parity in numbers
• All peace negotiations and peace building, including structural conflict resolution processes must have at least 33 per cent women in committees.
• Establish a specific policy and legislation to enhance women’s participation in the executive bodies of political parties to facilitate their role in political decision making positions
• Initiation of a “Shadow Constituent Assembly/Shadow Parliament” for women’s equality and rights to promote women’s leadership.
• Promote adequate representation and participation of women at the decision making level within the judiciary
• National organizations should establish initiatives to monitor the implementation on a regular basis
• A fully resourced and capacitated Gender Unit must be established in the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction
• Sex disaggregated data on murders, kidnappings, tortures, abductions and all forms of sexual and gender based violence relating to conflict need to be maintained.
• Ensure the security and protection of former women combatants and their children.
• Bills on Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Disappearance Commission should be passed without any further delay without any provision for providing amnesty on sexual violence.
• Develop, within the peace agreement, cases of women’s rights violations for both conflict and post conflict period.
• The violence facilitated by arms and its impacts on women must also be addressed.
• Civil Society Organizations should consistently work in partnership to advocate for access to justice by women and girls.
• Expansion of healthcare centers dedicated to victims and survivors of sexual and gender-based violence
• Increase collaboration, dialogue and capacity building with NGOs, Civil Society Organizations and UN organizations, medical personnel, the police, the judiciary and the media to address Sexual and Gender Based Violence
• Development and dissemination of national protocols and guidelines for management of Sexual and Gender Based Violence
• Establish formal mechanism for collecting and managing data on Sexual and Gender Based Violence from the service points
• Strengthen collaboration and referrals within healthcare centers, hospitals and across agencies on Sexual and Gender Based Violence cases.
Country: Bosnia Herzegovina
Civil Society organizations, in cooperation with international and UN agencies have been integral to monitoring the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and lobbying for the development of a NAP in Bosnia Herzegovina. Women’s organization Åene Åenama has published regular reports on UNSCR 1325 implementation prior to the adoption of the NAP- and has played an important role in advocacy, education, training and promotion of the NAP since its launch.
A wide range of civil society organizations had input into the NAP, including:
Åene Åenama (Women to Women)
UdruÅene Åene (Women United)
Centar za Åene Åar (Center for Women – Flame)
Åena BiH (Woman of BiH)
Helsinški parlament graÄ‘ana (Helsinki Citizens Parliament)
Forum Åena (Forum of Women)
Fondacija lokalne demokratije (Local Democracy Foundation)
Centar za pravnu pomod“ (Legal Aid Center)
Nova bududnost (New Future)
Milidanin Milidi Maja
In 2011 a review of the implementation of the National Action Plan within the security sector was conducted, which included wide consultations and capacity building/ training components, with emphasis on building the capacities of the NAP Coordination Board. The review was conducted with the collaboration of Åene Åenama, the Agency for Gender Equality, Ministry of Human Rights and Refugees, UN Women, NAP Coordination Board and ten local women’s organizations. The following recommendations were concluded:
• Utilize a variety of activities (lobbying, advocacy, media work, impeaching) on the adoption, amendments and legislation to facilitate implementation of full gender equality in all sectors of society.
• seek more sources of funding by municipalities for the implementation of activities to educate the population about the principles of gender equality
• Increase localized activities and increase the responsibility at the municipal government level, in the implementation of existing laws concerning the principles of gender equality.
• Implement a multi-year monitoring of municipal institutions on the implementation of existing legislation and the implementation of gender components in municipal government.
• Introduce an internal coordination mechanisms for the implementation and respect of gender equality in all government institutions, and establish an independent body to coordination this implementation.
• Introdiuce early childhood education curicula on gender equality and the elimination of prejudice.
• Enhance cooperation between the NGO organizations, education sector, media and goercement to promote women's rights and gender equality.
• Establish a database of victims of domestic violence, trafficking and other forms of discrimination, disaggregated for sex and other demographics
The National Action Plan states that Civil Society were consulted during the development phase of the NAP, however, these organizations are not listed. There is no clearly articulated ongoing role for Civil Society in the NAP’s implementation or monitoring and evaluation. There is also no reference to supporting local women’s civil society in Iceland’s international fields of engagement.
Civil Society have been involved in all stages of the NAP’s development and implementation. A broad range of Civil Society organizations and academics participated in the Consultative Group on Women, Peace and Security responsible for developing the NAP. This includes the following organizations:
Glencree Peace and Reconciliation Women’s Group (Wicklow)
Works with Israel- PalestineWomen’s Peace Group
Sexual Violence Centre (Cork)
Donegal Women’s Network
Dochas for Women
Galway Travellers Movement
Women into Public Life (Donegal)
COPE refuge (Galway)
Immigrant Council Ireland
University of Ulster
Chief Commissioner of the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission
Cross Border Women’s Reconciliation Project
Global Women’s Studies Programme
National Women’s Council of Ireland
Irish Red Cross
UNIFEM (UN Women)
Civil Society has a specified ongoing role in the NAP’s implementation and monitoring and evolution through the Monitoring Group.
Civil Society has also taken a lead role in advocating for the implementation of the Women Peace and Security resolutions in Ireland. For example, the Irish Joint Consortium on Gender Based Violence hosted the conference “Women, Peace and Conflict”, a cross-learning which drew together government, international organizations, women’s rights and peace activists and Civil Society organizations from Timor Leste, Afghanistan, Northern Ireland and Liberia. The initiative set out a range of recommendations to inform the development of a NAP in Ireland.
Since 2001, women’s organizations and peace organization led by Nederlandstalige Vrouwenraad (Dutch Women’s Council) and the Conseil des Femmes Francophones de Belgique (Women's Council of Francophone Belgium) lobbied for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and for the adoption of a Belgian NAP.
Civil Society was involved in the development of the NAP through the Commission of Women and Development, an official advisory body to the Belgian Minister for Development Cooperation composed of NGOs, academics and women’s organizations. This body includes the following women’s organizations:
In the sphere of peace and security the Commission for Women and Development has a policy focus on conflict prevention and peacebuilding, disarmament and non-proliferation, sanctions, anti-terrorism and peace operations.
Civil Society is charged with evaluating the NAP in 2010 and 2012, however it is not specified if these documents are to be made publicly available.
Nederlandstalige Vrouwenraad also established Platform 1325 in 2009, to monitor the implementation of the NAP. Platform 1325 includes Civil Society Organizations from Dutch and French women's movements, peace and human rights organizations, parliamentarians and representatives of governments institutions.
Civil Society Organizations have welcomed the adoption of a NAP, but have been critical of the exclusion of concrete actions for implementation, indicators and allocated budget. Civil Society has also been critical of the limited consultation with those organization with representation on the Commission of Women and Development, and in particular women in conflict and post-conflict situations.
Country: Cote d'Ivoire
The Cote d’Ivoire NAP’s design and implementation is overseen by the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs. Financial and technical assistance in development was provided by the government of Norway and UNDP, however there was no formal Civil Society engagement or consultation processes throughout the NAPs development.
The NAP defines Civil Society Organizations as participants in the monitoring and evaluating of NAP implementation, and also enables them to seek ad hoc inclusion of new indicators through the National Coordinating Committee.
Women’s Civil Society Organizations such as West Africa Network for Peacebuilding-Cote d’Ivoire are actively involved in supporting national implementation of UNSR1325 and overseeing the implementation of the NAP.
A range of new national women’s coalitions have been established to promote and defend women’s role in peace and reconstruction processes since the establishment of the NAP. This includes the Coalition of Women Leaders in Cote d’Ivoire, Organisation of Women for Peace (OFEP) and Organisation of Active Women of Cote d’Ivoire (OFACI).
Civil Society were not involved in the interdepartmental Working Group during the National Action Plan's development and are not involved in this body which continues with supervisory and coordination functions.
Civil Society were invited to provide submissions to the draft NAP and are included throughout the NAPs text as partners in implementation.
During the communist period, civil society was largely absent, however human rights and humanitarian civil society groups emerged, during and after the war including women’s organizations. The Croatian Women’s Network was established in 1999, and includes a broad range of women’s rights, feminist and ant-militarization organizations, many of which are involved in localizing various aspects of UNSCR 1325 and the related resolutions. Centar za Åenske studije (Center for Women's Studies) and Women in Black have been active in promoting UNSCR 1325 and the inclusion of feminist, anti-militarization approaches to its implementation.
Civil Society does not have representation in the Inter-Ministerial Working group, but is able to take part in annual dialogue sessions which are to be used as a “forum to exchange views and discuss progress and experiences with implementation.”
The NAP states objectives to support Civil Society and NGO’s with relevant expertise in the fields of peace and security, particularly humanitarian organizations. There is no reference to supporting women’s Civil Society domestically or in international fields of engagement.
Outside formal processes, women’s organizations such as Women in Black and WILPF Denmark have been active in promoting UNSCR 1325 and the inclusion of feminist anti-militarization approaches to its implementation; as well as supporting women’s organizations and networks in their efforts to realize the intent and objectives of UNSCR 1325.
The NAP states that Civil Society were involved in the Interdepartmental Working Group that developed the NAP and have an ongoing role in the implementation body, however, the individual organizations are not acknowledged.
Women’s civil society umbrella’s such as the Estonian Women’s Associations Roundtable and regional coalitions, such as the European Women’s Lobby, work to strengthen women’s human rights and gender equality, focus on mainstreaming regional implementation of UNSCR 1325, and addressing common regional issues such as prostitution and human trafficking.
Civil society was consulted during the drafting phases of the NAP and has an ongoing specified role in the implementation Steering Committee.
This includes women’s organizations and the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, an independent body with a pluralistic civil society membership, charged with advising government on human rights issues.
The Georgian NAP was developed through collaboration between the Governmental Working Group (with representatives from all major ministries and the Parliament of Georgia) and relevant Civil Society organizations.
More than 25 NGOs were involved in consultations on NAP formation with multiple meetings convened between the Government and the over 102 organizations which advocate for internally displaced persons and conflict affected women in the regions of Tbilisi, Qvemo Qartli, Shida Qartli, Imereti and Samegrelo.
The Women’s Information Center has been instrumental to coordinating Civil Society and government to push for the development of a NAP in Georgia. The Women’s Information Center participated in the NAP’s development through the Governmental Working Group and is also represented in the Coordination Group responsible for overseeing the NAP’s development.
Georgian women’s Civil Society has worked to collaborate with government and also international donors and UN agencies. Civil Society organizations participated in a review of gender sensitive security sector reform, undertaken by DCAF, UN Women and the EU, which considered the progress of the NAP. The review concluded the following recommendations:
• The need to identify resources (existing and new) for the NAPs implementation, and establish a working group to undertake a resource evaluation
• Civil Society should utilize expertise in monitoring and evaluation to support the governments evaluation process
• The need to establish a streamlined communication mechanism between government entities responsible for NAP and Civil Society to support the role of coordination role of the Gender Equality Council
The Italian NAP commits to meeting regularly with civil society in the context of the Inter-ministerial working group.
The NAP also commits the Italian government to enhancing the initiatives of civil society.
The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA), Human Security Division, was involved in drafting and oversight of Switzerland's NAP. For more information on implementation, visit their website or contact:
Ms. Carmela Bühler
Political Affairs Division IV
Country: United States of America
The U.S. Civil Society Working Group on Women, Peace and Security was involved in the development of the US NAP, providing policy recommendations and guidance to the US Government Interagency Committee, which coordinated the formation of the National Action Plan. The Working Group is convened by U.S Institute for Peace (USIP)’s Gender and Peacebuilding Center.
During the process of NAP development the U.S Civil Society Working Group produced 3 advocacy documents, including a 10 point action plan for the development of the NAP, a memorandum outlining 4 benchmarks against which actions can be evaluated to facilitate a NAP with concrete commitments, rather than intangible and vague aspirations.
The Civil Society Working Group is comprised of the following organizations:
Both Swedish NAPs were developed by the Government Taskforce, through consultation with Government agencies, NGOs, Civil Society Organisations, research institutes, International Government Organisations and other countries. In addition there is a bi-annual meeting/ consultation involving the Governement Taskforce and Civil Society organisations working on women, peace and security to discuss progress on implementation.
Operation 1325 was involved in drafting and oversight of Sweden's NAP. For more information on implementation, visit their website or contact:
+46 8 676 05 09
The Australian Government consulted Civil Society in developing the NAP, and provided funding for Civil Society lead national consultations and the development of a discussion paper. Some 90 grass roots and national organizations participated in this process.
Following this process, the Government Inter-Departmental Working Group produced a Consultation Draft of the NAP and invited Civil Society Organizations to provide written submissions, and participate in joint NGO-government roundtable discussions in the national capital.
There is scope for ongoing Civil Society involvement in the NAP (also see Indicators)- organizations are invited to nominate a selection of representatives to meet with the Inter-Departmental Working Group each year. The NAP also encourages Civil Society to develop shadow reports of the NAP implementation, which the Government will make publicly available.
In the NAP, the Australian Government commits itself to work collaboratively with the non-governmental sector to realize the goals and commitments in the NAP. The NAP itself commits to supporting civil society organizations to promote equality and increase women's participation.
Although specific non-governmental actors are not cited, Article 4.1.2 expresses the necessity of engagement with civil society and NGOs for "exchanges of information" and "best practices and expertise."
Country: African Union
The Gender Policy states that civil society constituencies will work with ECOSOCC, the NEPAD initiative APRM and other AU structures on gender mainstreaming.
The grassroots activities of the African Women's Decade will serve to craft policies that will then be implemented by AU Organs, RECs and Member States.
The African Women's Movement and the Council of Female Elders will also serve to advise on gender policy, programmes, donor financing and partnership.
The media is encouraged to act as a lobby group to further gender agenda and be a communication channel for "dissemination and sensitization at the grass root level."
Country: European Union
Specific civil society actors are not enumerated, but it is stated that the EU will support and build the capacity of local non-state actors to enable their "promotion of women's rights and gender equality in conflict-affected regions."
Specific civil society actors are not enumerated, but it is stated that the ODIHR will facilitate dialogue and cooperation between non-governmental organizations, media and government.
An ad-hoc group of six independent experts "composed of men and women in equal numbers and of high moral integrity" will be nominated by the Inter-Ministerial Committee.
The Protocol states that the media must take the lead in giving equal voice to men and women in all areas of coverage and eschewing the depiction of gender stereotypes.