WILPF sections have engaged in many of these NAP processes and adopted a Resolution on NAPs setting out the WILPF position.
WILPF "demands the application of a human security framework in the development of any NAP, specifying that under a human security framework, NAPs must reflect the holistic spirit of SCR 1325 and include obligations articulated in Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Beijing Platform for Action, Critical Area E, calling for the control of excessive arms expenditure, and the UN Charter which calls for the “least diversion for armaments of the world’s human and economic resources.”
Country: United States of America
WILPF-US participated in the development of the US NAP at several stages. WILPF-US advocated for a US NAP and once it was announced, WILPF-US published a comprehensive policy paper on the proposed NAP with key recommendations. The policy paper recommended a “human security” approach to the NAP, domestic application and the inclusion of civil society and grassroots women’s organizations. WILPF-US also conducted online survey, workshops and trainings.
WILPF-US convened civil society consultations in five cities (Detroit, Milwaukee, San Diego, Portland and Boston). The consultations were attended by representative of the US Department (from the Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues) and saw involvement of local women’s groups as well as WILPF members. The consultations resulted in a report, which features 64 recommendations for the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the U.S. NAP and were presented to US Government.
Like many other non-conflict affected nations, the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in the United States has been interpreted in a largely international way. However the feedback received through consultations undertaken by WILPF-US, indicated the strong desire within civil society for the NAP to have domestic application as well, and address the insecurity women face in the United States.
Those participating in the consultations, pointed to a range of issues, including erosion of gender machinery, the absence of physical security in many areas of the country, high rates of domestic violence, as well as issues such as sexual, slavery, forced prostitution and poor representation of women in public office. A summary of the recommendations included:
• Adopt a whole of government process.
• Adopt a transparent, accountable and inclusive process which ensures women from grassroots and marginalized communities are fully engaged.
• Establish a formal monitoring and review, body with equitable membership from women in civil society
• Establish quotas for women at all levels of decision-making, internationally and domestically, in elected and executive positions—including those related to peace and security.
• Reference international standards NAP, and urgently ratify CEDAW, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Rome Statute and other relevant UN treaties.
• Explicitly address the continuum of violence and to adopt a holistic perspective of peace based on equality, human rights, and human security for all, including the most marginalized, applied both domestically and internationally.
• Address accountability of private contractors and the U.S. government to international law.
• Implement a shift from military spending to an investment in human security and social safety nets
• Include comprehensive peace education in schools.
• Support a fully developed Department of Peace.
Despite strength of voice and common themes that emerged through these consultations, WILPF-US has stated that the finalized NAP falls far short in addressing the security threats identified by participants and fails, moreover, to incorporate their most pressing recommendations for conflict prevention. In particular the NAP has ignored women's concerns for domestic application and language on military spending and disarmament.
WILPF Netherlands, one of the signatories of the first and second Dutch NAP, is directly involved in the ongoing process of NAP development, monitoring and evaluation.
In this context the development, implementation and evaluation of the Netherlands NAP 1 and 2 has been achieved through collaboration between the government and civil society, a unique example for 1325 implementation worldwide.
WILPF Netherlands is one of the founders of the Platform Women & Sustainable Peace (Platform VDV). The Platform VDV is directly linked to the Dutch Gender Platform WO=MEN (www.wo-men.nl), which functions as the national coordination point for the civil society organizations, allowing them to exchange experiences and formulate joint recommendations.
In addition, WILPF Netherlands is directly involved in monitoring implementation in Colombia, one of the revised NAP's focus countries.
Finland’s WILPF section is an active member of the 1325 Network and has been involved in the development, evaluation, revision and implementation of the first and revised NAP.
WILPF Finland’s chair, Marianne Laxén representative of WILPF initiated a 1325-seminar for politicians during the parliamentary elections in 2011, where she also carried out the role of facilitators.
WILPF Australia was instrumental throughout all stages of the NAPs' development; and was actively in lobbying for and informing the development of the Australian NAP. In 2004 WILPF Australia received funding from the Australian Government Office for Women to develop a website promoting UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and produce a discussion paper outlining recommendations for the national implementation of UNSCR 1325.
In 2009, in partnership with UN Women, along with partner organizations, WILPF initiated national consultations to inform the Australian government on the next steps for development of a NAP. These consultations were held in all Australian Capital cities and witnessed the participation of almost 90 community and national organizations. The findings and recommendations of these consultations were presented to the Australian Government in a Final Report representing the voice of Civil Society. Following these consultations, WILPF put forward a proposal to the government, and the development of a NAP was subsequently accepted for inclusion in the top ten women’s priorities areas for action.
WILPF Australia collaborated with the NGO Working Group to produce a detailed written submission to the Consultation Draft of the NAP. The Australian Young-WILPF section, which was formed in 2011, also provided a detailed submission. WILPF and Young-WILPF Australia took part in the NGO roundtable discussions, which included representatives from the government Inter-Departmental Working Group.
In 2012 WILPF Australia established an ongoing 1325 working group, which is tasked with overseeing the implementation of the NAP and producing a shadow monitoring report when to coincide with review phases of the NAP.
IKFF, the Swedish section of WILPF, has been involved in consultations regarding development and evaluation of both Swedish NAPs.
Along with relevant Civil Society organisations and authorities, IKFF is part of a 1325 network that meets several times per year to discuss the Swedish Government's national and international implementation of UNSCR 1325. The network tracks the implementation of the NAP continuously and aims to bring forward different topics that can move the Swedish implementation process forward.
The Swedish Government authorities, including the police and the military, form a working group tasked with evaluating completed work on resolution 1325. Here, civil society organizations, including IKFF, were invited to participate. However this invitation was not extended until after the revised NAP, including indicators, had already been finalized.
"The Swedish civil society has always been included in the processes concerning the NAP, however, the possibility to give input has in many cases come at a late stage where the main parameters of the NAPs are already set" - Petra Andorff, Coordinator, WILPF Sweden.
IKFF took the opportunity to raise the ongoing issues regarding the NAP and its implementation, including;
- The need for holistic inclusion of CSOs in consultations on NAP development and evaluation.
- Increased substantive consultation with local and regional and international women CSOs on work related to international and domestic operations.
- Clear indicators in order to measure implementation of the plan.
- Earmarked money and a budget for the implementation of the plan.
- The importance of including disarmament as a factor related to women’s security.
WILPF-Spain is involved in national implementation of SCR 1325.
Country: Democratic Republic of Congo
WILPF-DRC is involved in national implementation of SCR 1325.
Denmark’s section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom has been involved in a collaborative project between the women's peace organizations in Finland, Norway and Sweden to investigate the Nordic countries implementations of their respective national action plans in the context of the with the invasion of Afghanistan. This results of this review found that greater research/ evidence is required to inform coordinated and focused implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the promotion of women’s rights in Afghanistan.