AIDS is not like smallpox or polio. We may not be able to eliminate it simply with a one-time vaccination or course of shots for children, since new strains of H.I.V. are constantly evolving. And unlike the communicable killer diseases we have encountered most often in the past, H.I.V. is transmitted through the most intimate and private human relationships, through sexual violence and commercial sex; it proliferates because of women's poverty and inequality.