Security Council resolution 2149 (2014) was unanimously adopted by the Council on 10 April 2014 (S/PV.7153) establishing the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).
The Security Council adopted resolution 2149 on the Central African Republic at the 7153rd meeting on 10 April 2014 (S/RES/2149). The resolution established the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) for an initial period until 30 April 2015. The resolution decided that, as from 15 September 2014, MINUSCA will initially comprise up to 10,000 military personnel, including 1,400 formed police unit personnel, 400 individual police officers and 20 correction officers.
The resolution included several noteworthy references to the women, peace and security agenda in both the preambular and the operative paragraphs. There were two references to gender in the preambular paragraphs. First, the Council expressed concern regarding widespread human rights violations, sexual violence against women and children in particular (PP. 9). Second, the Council recalled all relevant resolutions on women, peace and security (PP.25). These preambular references were reinforced by parallel operative paragraphs. The Council called for perpetrators of violations and abuses against children, including rape and sexual violence, to be held accountable (OP.13). Furthermore, the Council called upon all parties to armed conflict to issue clear orders against sexual and gender-based violence, holding the perpetrators accountable as well as facilitating access for victims of sexual violence to available services, and it made explicit reference to resolutions 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013) (OP.15). Moreover, the Council called for the deployment of Child Protection Advisers and Women Protection Advisers, as well as the ensuring of full and effective participation of women at all levels of the future elections process and the monitoring of human rights violations, including those committed against women (OP.30). Finally, in this resolution, the Council called for the reinforcement of efforts to ensure justice systems are re-established, with investigations and prosecutions conducted according to international standards (OP.30) and requested MINUSCA to take fully into account gender considerations as a cross-cutting issue, ensuring women’s full and effective participation, involvement and representation in all spheres and levels, including SSR, DDR, DDRR, national political dialogue and electoral processes.It also called for the deployment of Gender Advisers as well as requested enhanced reporting on this issue (OP.35).
Despite these notable references, the Council missed some significant opportunities to incorporate a gender lens in the following areas: the accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons (PP.13 and OP.33), the impact of transnational criminal activity (PP.13), women’s organizations and leaders’ participation on prevention of conflict, mediation and reconciliation efforts at all levels (OP.30), gender balance among the mission’s personnel (OP.20) and the delivery of humanitarian assistance (PP.16 and OP.45). Furthermore, the resolution did not call for the use of sex-disaggregated data in regards to internally displaced persons and refugees, including their specific humanitarian needs (PP.15 and OP.45).
In comparison to the recommendations put forth in the April 2014 MAP, the resolution’s record was adequate. The April MAP called for numerous points that were reflected in this resolution, including a robust mandate to protect civilians and monitor human rights (OP.30), the deployment of Gender Advisers, Women Protection Advisers, and Child Protection Advisers (OP.30 and OP.35), ensuring that services are available (OP.15), reinforcing efforts to ensure justice systems are re-established, with investigations and prosecutions conducted according to international standards (OP.30) and accountability for atrocities committed by all armed groups (OP.13). However, even though the resolution called for the development of benchmarks on women, peace and security mentioned in the MAP, it did not go into detail about them but in general terms. It did discuss the following MAP points: the participation of women in peace processes (OP.30); and the protection of civilians, including women (OP.30). Finally, in this resolution, the Council failed to discuss active participation and consultation of women’s civil society organizations.
Resolution 2149 was the first resolution establishing MINUSCA but in comparison with the previous S/RES/2134 (28 January 2014), which renewed BINUCA’s mandate and authorized an EU force to CAR as well as targeted sanctions, this current resolution significantly improved its use of women, peace and security elements. In contrast to S/RES/2134, this resolution addressed women’s participation in SSR, DDR, DDRR, national reconciliation and dialogue efforts. However, the Council failed again to mention gender-specific needs and rights of women in humanitarian access and delivery as well as when it came to refugees and IDPs and the flow of SALWs.