Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most dangerous places in the world to be a woman. An estimated 70 percent of women in Papua New Guinea experience rape or assault in their lifetime, and women in PNG also face systemic discrimination. Despite laws criminalising violence against women, including the 2013 Family Protection Act, perpetrators are rarely prosecuted. PNG had to deal with separatist forces on the island of Bougainville in the 1990s; however, since then the country is not involved in any conflicts. PNG has not been listed on the Global Gender Gap Index for 2017, but it has acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1995. Papua New Guinea voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), but has not yet signed or ratified. During the 2017 October Security Council Open Debate, PNG did not make any statements affirming support for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. In 2017, Papua New Guinea spent $71.9 million on military expenditures. They have not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000). Many cultural and traditional norms in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have had a negative impact on women. Although men and women have equal rights under the Constitution, gender inequality remains a severe impediment to development. Nonetheless, women's rights organizations continue to work tirelessly for women's empowerment and rights.