Uzbekistan has not been listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2017. Both country welfare improvement strategies for 2008–2010 and 2012–2015 proposed target indicators for achieving gender equality in selected priority sectors. Uzbekistan acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1995. The country has not signed or ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Women in Uzbekistan face challenges including societal discrimination against women. Furthermore, whilst women have historically held leadership positions across all sectors of society, although not with the same prevalence as men, and cultural and religious practices limit their effectiveness.