Zambian law generally entitles women to equality with men. Nevertheless, it is not adequately enforced and women experience discrimination in employment, equal pay, education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property. Zambia is ranked 113 out of 136 countries listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2013. Zambia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1985. Societal discrimination remains a serious obstacle to women's rights. Women are severely under-represented in politics and are denied full economic participation. Discrimination against women is especially prevalent in customary courts, where they are considered subordinate with respect to property, inheritance, and marriage. This reinforces their status as second class citizens and prohibits them from the full realization of their rights.