In the present report, the challenges and opportunities in achieving gender equality and the empowerment of rural women and girls are examined in the context of the full, effective and accelerated implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the gender-responsive implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (General Assembly resolution 70/1). The prevailing gender inequalities in rural areas that compromise the livelihoods, well-being and resilience of rural women and girls are also examined. The challenges and opportunities facing rural women and girls are addressed in terms of realizing their rights to an adequate standard of living, to a life free of violence and harmful practices and to land and productive assets, food security and nutrition, education and health, inclusive of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Policies and actions to achieve gender equality and rural women’s and girls’ empowerment and human rights are outlined in the report, and the need is expressed for greater commitment to ensuring that no rural woman or girl is left behind. Recommendations for consideration by the Commission on the Status of Women are set out in the final section of the report.