Critical Issues

Investing in women's participation and rights for peace is both important because it is critical to preventing violence and conflict and promoting peace. Here are a few cases that highlight how far we have come, and how far we still have to go.

Critical Issues
General Women, Peace and Security

This theme focuses on the fundamental idea that gender perspectives must be included in peace processes; women’s needs and concerns must be taken into account and the differential impact of conflict on women and men must be addressed. 
Since the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000), seven more Security Council resolutions have been adopted. Together with key civil society partners and like-minded Member States, WILPF has actively been involved in advocacy to push for action that moved the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda forward. Countries have an obligation to better reflect the progress and barriers to implementation of the WPS Agenda as per Security Council resolutions UNSCR 1325 (2000); UNSCR 1820 (2008); 1888 (2009); 1889 (2009)1960 (2010); UNSCR 2122 (2013); UNSCR 2242 (2015).
For the women’s peace movement, the WPS Agenda addresses two fundamental points. The first is that women and gender perspectives must be included in peace processes. The second is that women’s needs and concerns must be taken into account and the differential impact of conflict on women and men must be addressed. Women have been systematically targeted during conflict and are frequently excluded from decision-making positions in peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction.
For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Centre >> Themes


Conflict Prevention

The conflict prevention theme focuses on the incorporation of gender perspectives and the participation of women in preventing the emergence, spread, and re-emergence of violent conflict. Women’s active role in conflict prevention is crucial to international peace and security.

Recognising women as constructive participants in conflict prevention, the Security Council calls for the full and equal participation of women at all levels of decision-making (UNSCR 1325 (2000); UNSCR 1820 (2008); UNSCR 2122 (2013); UNSCR 2242 (2015)). Member States are called upon to increase the representation of women in national, regional and international institutions. They are also called upon to increase female representation in mechanisms for conflict prevention (UNSCR 1325, OP) and dialogues (UNSCR 1820, OP12), and in the design and implementation of prevention and eradication of the illicit transfer, and accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons (UNSCR 2242, OP15). 

The most effective way to fulfill the Women, Peace and Security Agenda is to prevent conflict from occurring. The prevention pillar of the Agenda has a strong support from civil society, yet, effective focus on prevention remains lacking. There are gaps at all levels in challenging the root causes of the violence, including militarisation, the proliferation of small arms and light weapons. Women must actively participate in designing and implementing disarmament strategies.

All actors, including the United Nations Security Council, need to collect information about women in conflict. This is vital to conflict prevention efforts. At the national and local levels, early warning systems can be used as tools to prevent violence. These systems have to utilize existing UN mechanisms and structures. To be effective, they must incorporate a gender-sensitive approach to both design and implementation.

When there is impunity for violations of international law and sexual violence, efforts to prevent conflict are incomplete. It is women who continue to serve as critical agents in developing long-term strategies for conflict prevention, advancement of human security and the promotion peace. Women’s active role in conflict prevention, in addition to gender mainstreaming, is crucial to the achievement of international peace and security.
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This theme focuses on the idea that the proliferation of arms is one of the root causes of conflict. It impacts women and girls unequally. Disarmament is defined as comprehensive actions undertaken by actors at the international, regional, national and/or local levels. The goal of these actions is to reduce nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons as well as small arms and light weapons (SALW), land mines and the global arms trade.
Women are disproportionately affected by the use of  SALW as they are often used as a tool of intimidation in the perpetration of sexual violence. Women are also affected negatively by post-conflict damage to education and health systems, and displacement due to armed violence. In addition, when resources are continuously spent on weapons, the inevitable result is that governments are not spending money on social programs such as education or ending violence against women. It is essential that the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda be linked to disarmament if sustainable peace is to be achieved.
The Security Council must attend to the gendered impact of the prevalence of illicit small arms in post-conflict situations and support the participation of women in the activities associated with all phases of disarmament. States should also sign, ratify, and implement the 2013 Arms Trade Treaty, with particular action being taken to enforce its gender criterion. 
The adoption and implementation of UNSCR 1325 (2000) has allowed for women to become more involved in disarmament talks, negotiations and the establishment of peacebuilding programs. While UNSCR 1325 (2000) does not directly discuss the effects of SALW, it does address disarmament in various contexts. It has been used by women’s groups as a tool for advocating against SALW and educating people on the effects of SALW on women and children in conflict and post-conflict situations. 
Continued conversations on disarmament and its direct relationship with the WPS Agenda at the national and local levels will, overtime, bring about change and reveal its negative impacts on society.
For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Centre >> Themes


This theme focuses on women’s representation and participation in peace processes, electoral processes (as both candidates and voters), decision-making positions at the United Nations, and in the broader sociopolitical sphere.

Despite this recognition that women need to be included in all levels of decision-making, progress has been slow. 23.5 percent of National Parliament members worldwide were women as of July 2017, up from 13.8 percent in December 2000. Of the 230 chambers in 172 countries for which information is available, 102 have at least one woman deputy speaker of parliament.

The Security Council acknowledges the need for strategies to increase women's participation in all UN missions and appointments to high-level positions in UNSCR 1325 (2000) (OP3), and UNSCR 1889 (2009) (OP4). As of November 2016, there have been five women-led peace operations as special representatives of the Secretary-General. However, recent analysis shows that less than 25 percent of all senior posts — at the UN Headquarters and in the field combined — were occupied by women, with their representation typically lower infield posts.

The Security Council further emphasises the need for women’s participation in peacebuilding processes (UNSCR 1889 (2009)) and calls for the mobilisation of resources for advancing gender equality and empowering women (OP14), reporting on the progress of women’s participation in UN missions (OP18), equal access to education for women and girls in post-conflict societies (OP11), and the increase of women’s participation in political and economic decision-making (OP15). Until this language translates into action, the potential for women’s full and equal contribution to international peace and security will remain unrealised.

Building on the points made in earlier resolutions, the latest Security Council resolution on Women, Peace and Security UNSCR 2242 (2015) calls upon donor countries to provide financial and technical assistance to women involved in peace processes, including training in mediation, advocacy and technical areas of negotiation (OP1). This resolution addresses a lack of sufficient funding for gender equality and peace. It is one of the main roadblocks to the implementation of the Agenda.

For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Centre >> Themes

Peace Processes

This theme focuses on increasing the representation of women in formal and informal peace processes and incorporating a gender perspective into peace agreements.

The Security Council calls for an increase in quality and quantity of peace agreements with specific gender-responsive provisions to improve the security and status of women (UNSCR 1325 (2000), OP8, OP16). The inclusion of issues and provisions relevant to women’s interests in peace agreements is critical to enabling post-conflict processes, institutions, and mechanisms to respond to women’s needs. However, between 1991 and 2001 only 30 percent of the peace agreements that ended civil conflicts included such provisions. In relation to one element of gender analysis, only 18 out of 300 peace agreements have referenced sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) since the end of the Cold War. Furthermore, in 2015, seven out of ten peace agreements signed included gender-specific provisions.

Women’s participation in formal peace negotiations (as mediators, negotiators, technical experts and official observers) has a direct relationship to the inclusion of issues related to the rights and concerns of women in the accords. Acknowledging this, the Security Council calls for women’s participation and representation at all levels of decision-making in peace processes in UNSCR 1325 (2000)(OP2), UNSCR 1820 (2008) (OP12), UNSCR 1888 (2009) (OP16), UNSCR 1889 (2009) (OP1), UNSCR 2122 (2013) (OP1, OP2), and UNSCR 2242 (2015) (OP1). While women have been known to participate in informal peace processes through parallel processes and within civil society organisations, they are rarely included in formal processes at the table. Although women participated in the mediation support teams of 12 of the 14 UN co-led peace negotiations, only four of the official negotiating delegations included women.

Peace processes and agreements represent an important opportunity and catalyst for change. Women’s early and full engagement in these processes will increase awareness of, and responsiveness to, women’s rights and needs. Their presence translates into the inclusion of gender-responsive provisions in peace agreements, which are crucial to facilitating gender equality in post-conflict political, economic, legal and security structures.
For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes


This theme focuses on securing the rights and safety of women and girls during and after conflict. The protection of women must not be separated from women’s agency and participation.

The normative framework and mechanisms of the “Protection of Civilians” agenda overlap and reinforce the protection elements of Women, Peace and Security. The number of civilian casualties now surpasses the number of combatant casualties in armed conflict, and women continue to be disproportionately affected in gender-specific ways, such as sexual violence, trafficking and exploitation. Hence, it is imperative that the Security Council encourages protection strategies, policies and actions to incorporate a gender perspective at all levels and stages of implementation.

Acknowledging the importance of protecting women and women’s human rights in conflict (UNSCR 1325 (2000), OP8), the Security Council calls on all parties to armed conflict to respect and uphold the international law (OP9) and take special measures to protect women from gender-based violence (OP10). Also, Security Council Resolution 2242 (2015) further recognises the importance of integrating gender considerations across humanitarian programming by ensuring the provision of access to protection and the full range of medical, legal, psychosocial and livelihood services, without discrimination.

To strengthen women’s participation as a cross-cutting theme, women must be consulted and engaged in designing and implementing the protection programmes intended to secure their rights and safety (UNSCR 1960 (2010), OP10). The Security Council specifically calls for the consultation of women and women’s organisations in the development of protection mechanisms for displaced women (UNSCR 1820 (2008), OP10). The Security Council resolution 2106 (2013) calls for the further deployment of Women Protection Advisors (WPA) (OP7).

The Security Council requests the Secretary-General to provide guidelines and training materials on the protection of women for Member States to incorporate into national training programmes (UNSCR 1325 (2000), OP6). The Security Council further requests specific guidelines and strategies for peacekeeping operations, with the purpose of enhancing the protection of women and girls from sexual violence (UNSCR 1820 (2008), OP8-9), and calls upon Member States to offer victims of sexual violence equal legal protection (UNSCR 1820 (2008), OP4; UNSCR 1888 (2009), OP6; UNSCR 2106 (2013), OP21).

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Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV)

This theme focuses on the incidence and prevalence of violence against women in conflict and post-conflict settings. Polarisation of gender roles, the proliferation of weapons, militarisation and the breakdown of law affect SGBV.

The risk of SGBV is heightened during conflict by aggravating factors such as the polarisation of gender roles, the proliferation of arms, the militarisation of society and the breakdown of law and order. The subsequent long-term and complex impacts of SGBV continue to affect individuals and communities after the end of conflict.

SGBV is addressed in all resolutions on Women, Peace and Security. In UNSCR 1888 (2009), the Security Council expresses its intention to ensure peacekeeping resolutions contain provisions on the prevention of, and response to, sexual violence, with corresponding reporting requirements to the Council (OP11). The resolutions deal with protecting women from violence (UNSCR 1820 (2008), OP3, OP8-10; UNSCR 1888 (2009), OP3, OP12); strengthening local and national institutions to assist victims of sexual violence (1820 (2008), OP13; 1888 (2009), OP13); and including strategies to address sexual violence in post-conflict peacebuilding processes (1820 (2008), OP11). UNSCR 1820 (2008) also calls for the participation of women in the development of mechanisms intended to protect women from violence (OP10).

UNSCR 1960 (2010) created institutional tools to combat impunity and outlined specific steps for the prevention of and protection from conflict-related sexual violence. The new “naming and shaming,” which lists mechanisms mandated in this Resolution, is a step forward to bringing justice for victims and recognizing that sexual violence is a serious violation of human rights and international law. Later, in UNSCR 2242 (2015), the Security Council urged Member States to promptly investigate, prosecute and punish perpetrators of sexual and gender-based violence, as well as provide reparations for victims. This strengthened its call for improving access to justice for women in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Addressing SGBV is an integral part of the overall Women, Peace and Security Agenda. SGBV affects the health and safety of women. It also has a significant impact on economic and social stability. The Security Council recognises that sexual violence can threaten international peace and security and that it is frequently used as a tactic of war to dominate, humiliate, terrorise, and displace.

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This theme focuses on a gendered approach to multi-dimensional peacekeeping missions, predominantly through gender mainstreaming of peace support operations and the increase of female recruitment in peacekeeping, military and police.

The Security Council calls for an increase in the number of women in peacekeeping operations (UNSCR 1325 (2000), OP6). To address the gender imbalance that currently exists, the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has set a goal to increase the proportion to 20% by 2014. Yet, as of July 2017, women constitute only 4,38% personnel in UN Peacekeeping missions. Further, the UN Secretary-General has implored Member States to contribute more female personnel to the UN.

However, it is important to note that the issues of gender and peacekeeping should never be reduced to the number of women recruited as peacekeepers. Promoting security is about providing real human security for the population, not about the militarisation of women. The point is not to achieve gender parity for its own sake, but rather to draw on the unique and powerful contribution women can make to peacekeeping.

The Security Council commits to include a gender component in UN field operations (1325 (2000), OP5), requests that the UN Secretary-General’s reports to include information on the progress of gender mainstreaming within each operation (1325 (2000), OP17), and calls for the further deployment of Women Protection Advisors (WPA) and recognises the distinct role of Gender Advisors (2106 (2013), OP7-8; 2242 (2015), OP7). Without a gender perspective, it is almost impossible to adequately create an inclusive security, which forms the basis of promoting sustainable and durable peace. Gender training, pre-deployment, on the ground, and post-deployment is effective for ensuring peacekeeping personals have sufficient knowledge and skills.

Peacekeeping missions are increasingly being mandated to address sexual violence (1960 (2010), OP10), and training can increase the prevention, recognition, and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and sexual exploitation and abuse (1820 (2008), OP6; 2242 (2015), OP10). The implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda varies greatly among peacekeeping operations. This variation is a result of the peacekeeping mission’s mandates and also structure, leadership, funding, whether there is a designation of a separate unit to address gender, and the number of gender advisors. These key gaps were highlighted in DPKO’s Ten-Year Impact Study on Implementation of Resolution 1325 in Peacekeeping.

These measures can trigger positive changes for women in conflict and post-conflict situations, such as increased physical security, employment-related benefits, capacity building for local women’s organisations, and increased awareness of women’s rights. Additionally, positive role models and examples of women’s leadership have a positive effect on the environment and contribute to the success of peacekeeping missions.

For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes

Displacement and Humanitarian Assistance

 The Humanitarian Assistance and Displacement theme focuses on the rights, concerns and needs of women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations, including those affected by conflict-related displacement.

Effective humanitarian assistance and distribution of aid requires an understanding of the different ways conflict impacts women, men, girls and boys in order to ensure an appropriate response by humanitarian actors.

Furthermore, the Security Council recognises that refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), in particular, are adversely affected by conflict. It also acknowledges that displaced women face specific challenges and concerns. These concerns include increased risk of human rights abuses, SGBV, harassment, discrimination, and restricted access to resources, education and decision-making processes.

All parties to conflicts must uphold international law as it relates to refugee populations and those in need of humanitarian assistance (1325 (2000), OP9, OP12). When designing refugee camps and settlements, the specific needs and concerns of women and girls must be incorporated in both planning and implementation (1325 (2000), OP12). The UN Secretary-General, in consultation with women and women-led organisations, must develop effective mechanisms to protect women and girls in, and around, UN’s refugee and IDP camps - particularly from SGBV (1820 (2008), OP10).

The Security Council must consider the humanitarian needs of women when selecting and enacting measures to restore international peace and security. UNSCR 1325 (2000) acknowledges the need for women’s participation in humanitarian operations and urges the Secretary-General to increase the role of women as humanitarian personnel (OP4). In addition, UNSCR 1889 (2009) calls upon all parties to armed conflicts to respect the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and calls for equal and unimpeded humanitarian assistance for women and girls in refugee and IDP camps (OP12).

In UNSCRs 1820 (2008) and 1888 (2009), the Security Council addresses the role of humanitarian assistance programmes, the training of humanitarian personnel to combat sexual violence (UNSCR 1820,OP6) and requires the incorporation of issues of sexual violence in humanitarian access agreements within peace processes (1888 (2009), OP17). The Security Council further calls for the development and support of national institutions to provide sustainable assistance to victims of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict periods (1820 (2008), OP13).

Lastly, UNSCR 2242 (2015) expresses its intention, when adopting or renewing targeted sanctions in situations of armed conflict, to consider designating, as appropriate, those actors, including those in terrorist groups, engaged in violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including sexual and gender-based violence, forced disappearances, and forced displacement, and commits to ensuring that the relevant expert groups for sanctions committees have the necessary gender expertise. 

It is imperative that women are involved in both short- and long-term relief and recovery efforts. This includes participation in emergency response implementation and monitoring, and the promotion of women’s equal access to aid and services through gender-sensitive distribution mechanisms.

For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes



Human Rights

This theme focuses on mechanisms to respect, protect and promote women’s rights before, during and after conflict.

The normative framework for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda arises from principles and discourses of both IHL and human rights. The need for all actors in armed conflict to respect and uphold IHL and human rights, in relation to women and girls, is reaffirmed in UNSCR 1325 (2000) (OP9), UNSCR 1888 (2009) (OP3) and UNSCR 1889 (2009) (OP2).

All States have the responsibility to put an end to impunity and to prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, including those relating to sexual violence against women and girls (1325 (2000), OP11; 1820 (2008), OP4; 1888 (2009), OP7; 2122 (2013), OP12; 2422 (2015), OP7). Furthermore, States should exclude these crimes, where feasible, from amnesty provisions (1325 (2000), OP11). The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) historically codifies a series of core crimes of sexual and gender violence. Vetting procedures to ensure the exclusion of candidates from national armies and security forces associated with violations of IHL and human rights law, especially those associated with crimes of sexual violence, are called for in UNSCR 1888 (2009) (OP3, OP17).

In addition to IHL, the UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security are built on human rights principles, including equality and the indivisibility of rights and empowerment. Acknowledging the importance of participation, the Security Council missions must ensure the consideration of women’s rights and utilisation of a gender perspective and consult with local and national women’s groups (1325 (2000), OP15). The Security Council further calls for expanding the role of women in UN field operations as human rights personnel (1325 (2000), OP4), and identifying women’s protection advisers within human rights protection units of UN peacekeeping missions (1888 (2009), OP7).

To tackle impunity and realise rights, normative legal frameworks must be supported by a systematic documentation of abuses as well as initiatives addressing the barriers women face in reporting and prosecuting violations.

For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes

Justice, Rule of Law and Security Sector Reform (SSR)

This theme focuses on the application of a gender perspective into the post-conflict process of reforming security and justice institutions, with the aim of ensuring transparent, accountable and effective services.

Although the United Nations and the  Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security have stressed that justice and SSR must be gender sensitive throughout planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation phases, huge gaps remain in the areas of the security sector and justice reforms. 

The Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security stress the particular need for improved security sector responses to address and prevent sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Member States are urged to undertake comprehensive legal and judicial reform to better protect women from violence (1888 (2009), OP6). Reiterating the call for prosecutions to end impunity (1325 (2000), OP11; 2242 (2015), OP 14), Member States are called upon to investigate and bring perpetrators of sexual violence to justice (1820 (2008), OP4; 1888 (2009), OP6).

To help strengthen national judicial systems, and identify gaps in national responses to sexual violence, the  Security Council requests that a UN team of experts work with national officials to enhance criminal responsibility for crimes of sexual violence (1888 (2009), OP8). Vetting armed forces to ensure the exclusion of those associated with past actions of rape and other forms of sexual violence is an essential component of Justice and SSR (1820 (2008), OP3; 1888 (2009), OP3). Finally, it is critical that access to justice, protection and redress for survivors of sexual violence is ensured (1820 (2008), OP4; 1888 (2009), OP6-7; 2122 (2013), OP2; 2242 (2015), OP 14).

The resolutions set out specific obligations, in addition to broader guidelines, for transitional justice and justice reforms within SSR. Women’s rights must be ensured in the reform and rebuilding of the police and judiciary (1325 (2000), OP8), and within peace agreements. To facilitate this, UNSCR 1820 (2008) calls for the inclusion of women and women’s organisations in all UN-assisted reform efforts (OP10).

Justice and SSR are crucial components of peacebuilding and have a direct impact on a country’s ability to achieve sustainable peace. Both gender mainstreaming in policy making, and the participation of women, are integral to successful reform.

For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes

Reconstruction and Peacebuilding

The Reconstruction and Peacebuilding theme focuses on the application of a gender perspective to peacebuilding. The response of local, national, and international systems to women’s priorities in post-conflict situations can significantly impact stability and development.

The realisation of women’s right to full participation in preventing, resolving and recovering from conflict, is critical to building sustainable peace and the fulfillment of human security. Furthermore, the response of local, national and international systems to women’s priorities in post-conflict situations, can significantly impact the stability and development of communities.

The engagement of women in early stages of peacemaking can increase gender analysis in post-conflict planning, lead to improved outcomes for women, and enhance their capacity to participate in longer-term peacebuilding. However, women’s rights and concerns should not be dependent on the presence of women in peace processes. Systems must be in place to ensure their inclusion is standard operating procedure.

In UNSCR 1325 (2000), the Security Council recognises that addressing the unique needs of women and girls during post-conflict reconstruction requires integrating a gender perspective at all stages (1325 (2000), OP8). The Security Council acknowledges the need to counter negative societal attitudes regarding women’s equal capacity for involvement and calls for the promotion of women’s leadership and support for women’s organisations (1889 (2009), OP1; 2122 (2013), OP7). In addition, the Security Council requests training on the protection, rights, and needs of women in all peacebuilding measures (1325 (2000), OP6).

To achieve this, the Security Council tasks the UN Secretary-General to report on challenges and make recommendations relevant to the participation of women and gender mainstreaming in peacebuilding and recovery efforts (1888 (2009), OP19; 2122 (2013), OP7). Similarly, the 2015 Review of the Peacebuilding Architecture without the engagement of women from the earlier moments of attempting to end the violence to the latter stages of consolidating the peace, the dangers of relapse are greatly heightened. However, overlapping forms of discrimination and exclusion particularly affect women during violent conflicts, placing serious obstacles in the way of ensuring full participation in reconstruction and peacebuilding processes.

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This theme focuses on the way various governing bodies at all levels work to implement the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. 
UNSCR 1325 (2000) was a landmark resolution as it was the first time the Security Council addressed disproportionate and unique impact of armed conflict on women, recognised the under-valued and under-utilised contributions women make to conflict prevention, peacekeeping, conflict resolution and peace-building, and stressed the importance of their equal and full participation as active agents in peace and security. The normative framework on Women, Peace and Security initiated by UNSC Resolution 1325 is critical to the Sustainable Peace and Sustainable Development agendas, recognising that women’s rights are vital to achieving peace and justice so that they can fulfill their potential in dignity and equality. 

Since the adoption, it has been the responsibility of the UN system, Member States and other parties to implement UNSCR 1325 (2000). To help strengthen accountability for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 (2000), the Security Council requested that the Secretary-General release an annual report on Women, Peace and Security and the achievements, gaps and challenges of the implementation process. With the establishment of the UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, also known as UN Women, Member States now have assistance in implementing equality standards and the UN will be held accountable for its own commitments on gender equality.
Since the implementation of UNSCR 1325 (2000), Member States have been developing National Action Plans (NAPs), in which governments identify their inclusion and equality priorities and commit to action. Only about 10 percent of UNSCR 1325 National Action Plans include dedicated budgets; only two percent of aid to peace and security for fragile states in 2012-2013 targeted gender equality and Member States only limitedly and inconsistently have begun to integrate women’s human rights and gender equality into national budgets. Meanwhile, in 2015, there was a global military spend of $1.6 trillion, over $4 trillion allocated to bail out banks, and over $6 trillion sequestered in corporate tax havens. As this demonstrates, the problem is not a lack of funding, but a failure to effectively use existing funding to promotes human security based on women’s lives and experiences.
The engagement of women in all aspects of development, diplomacy, peacekeeping and protection must be mainstreamed throughout NAPs and the UN system. 
For more resources on this Critical Issue, visit Women, Peace and Security Resource Center >> Themes