Time and Topic: Covering the period from 1 May to 31 August 2015, the report provides information on the major developments within Somalia and an update on the implementation of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM)
Women, Peace and Security
In pursuant of Resolution 2232 (2015), the Secretary-General report provides an update on developments in Somalia and the implementation of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) mandate. The number of WPS references have decreased, both in terms of number (19 to12 references) and scope, since the last report (S/2015/331), which may be the direct result of the decreased language on gender, sexual violence, and women in the adoption of Resolution 2232 (2015). Despite this significant decrease, the report continues to dedicate two sections to women’s protection and participation concerns, one entitled “Prevention of Sexual Violence,” and the other “Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment.” The Observation section also makes only one references to women, one less than the last report (S/2015/331). References to women focus more so on their political participation, rather than, the violation of their human rights. The report fails to mention resolution 1325 (2000) and lacks analysis on gender and conflict. There are also several WPS concerns highlighted in the mandate that the report fails to provide sufficient information on.
Assistance to Military, Police, and Maritime Security
The report misses an opportunity to provide any information on women in the military and police forces, and/or discuss how gender-specific needs are being taken into account in these security processes. At a minimum, the report should advocate for trainings of all Somali military and police force personnel to include gender and human rights, particularly the rights of women.
In regards to maritime security, the report makes no reference to women’s protection and/or participation. The last report of the Secretary-General on the situation with respect to piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia cited reports of sexual exploitation of women and girls in areas controlled by pirates and mentioned the impact of piracy on issues such as early marriage. At a minimum, the report should provide analysis on gender and piracy.
Security Sector Reform (SSR)
The report makes no references to women in the security sector reform. The report misses the opportunity to provide any updates information on plans for implementation and/or the specific provisions of the recruitment strategy to include women (S/2015/331). The report also misses an opportunity to discuss the context of women’s participation in national forces, including the challenges to their participation.
In regards to the security situation, the report cites a number of civilian casualties and injuries as the result of violence with Al-Shabaab and clan militias.It is imperative that reports provide sex disaggregated data on civilian casualties and injuries, so that the impact of conflict on women can be assessed. Overall, the report misses an opportunity to discuss women’s protection concerns in relation to conflict within the security sector.
Demilitarization and Arms Management
The report notes that the UN and the International Organization for Migration signed a memorandum of understanding to implement a project to provide immediate support to the Government in managing safe houses for disengaged female combatants of Al-Shabaab. The report misses the opportunity to provide any further information on female combatants, including context and data on the number of women in need of such facilities. Overall, the gender dimensions of demilitarization and arms management are unknown from the report.
Human Rights (WPS and CAAC)
In regards to gender equality, the reports details a number of UNSOM related activities including lobbying support for the Somali women’s organizations, support to civil society missions to Cadaado, and endorsement of women candidates in the local state formation process as well as the Independent Electoral Commission. The report misses the opportunity to provide any information on the outcomes of this support and/or whether female candidates were successful in obtaining political positions.
To prevent sexual violence, the report notes that trainings are underway for Somali national forces, including militia integrated forces, and AMISOM on sexual and gender based violence. However, the report misses an opportunity to provide any information and/or data on incidence of sexual violence and/or provide any context. The report is dominated by a reiteration of the UN’s support to zero tolerance policy.
The report misses an opportunity to provide an understanding of the gendered dimensions of the humanitarian situation, including with regard to refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), or on how gender-specific needs are being taken into account in the distribution of humanitarian aid. The report makes only one references to women, noting 2,638 malnourished pregnant women were served with life saving treatment services by nutrition cluster partners.At a minimum, the report should provide sex disaggregated data on refugees and IDPs as well as for all cited persons receiving food and health aid. In addition, the report should advocate for gender-sensitive provision of aid and the inclusion of civil society, including women’s organization, in the design, implementation, and monitoring of humanitarian assistance.
Rule of Law and Judicial Matters
The report misses an opportunity to provide any information on women in relation to the rule of law. The only references to EPS related concerns, notes that UN agencies are engaging with key justice institutions as well as civil society, however, the report provides no further information on the details of the engagement and/or outcomes. At a minimum, the report should provide updated information on legislation regarding sexual violence as well as gender information for all UNSOM assistance to the Government of Somalia on trainings and strategic plans within the judicial and corrections sector. The report also should advocate for the recruitment, professionalization, and retention of women in the judicial sector.
Political Process and Electoral Assistance
The report notes that the Secretary-General’s Special Representative co-chaired the second Ministerial meeting on the High-Level Partnership Forum, which included representatives of civil society. The report misses an opportunity to discuss the outcome of this engagement as well as attribute any gains and inputs by civil society. In regard to elections, the report also notes the UN Department for Political Affairs conducted an election “pre-assessment” mission to SOmalia, with met with government and civil society members to assess the prospects for conducting a constitutional referendum and national elections in September 2016. The report provides no information on the inputs and engagement with civil society; however, it does note that the assessment team concluded one-person-one-vote elections in 2016 were unlikely, despite an overall support for inclusive politics. 
Overall, the report misses an opportunity to provide an understanding of women in the political sector and/or civil society’s input to ongoing political processes. At a minimum, the report should provide context information on challenges to women and civil society’s participation as well as outcome information on all cited engagements.
International Cooperation and Coordination
The report misses an opportunity to provide any information on UNSOM coordination and cooperation of international assistance on any WPS related concerns and/or funding. At a minimum, the report should call on donors to earmark funding to and increase cooperation on WPS related concerns in the Observation section of the report.
The report also notes that current growth in gross domestic product, driven by a number of issues, including gender disparity. The report misses an opportunity to discuss mission action taken to provide assistance in closing the gender gap as well as to provide any context for women in the job market.
Future reports should provide detailed information on all aspects of the UNSOM mandate relating to women’s human rights and sexual and gender based violence (SGBV). Future reporting must include a comprehensive discussion of SGBV, with a focus on access to justice for survivors and protection concerns for IDP and refugee women. In particular, the Secretary-General should request detailed information on the number of instances of sexual violence and provide context information and analysis the relationship between conflict and SGBV. All UNSOM supported initiatives on women’s empowerment and women’s participation should also provide details on outcomes of support. It is critical that reports mainstream gender as a cross-cutting issue, providing at a minimum of sex-disaggregated data on the humanitarian situation, political participation, and conflict-related civilian casualties and injuries. Reporting should systematically engage women’s civil society as consultants and participants in humanitarian, electoral, and security sector processes. Finally, reports should provide gender analysis on the challenges facing women’s participation in the political sector and state formation activities.
 See S/2015/702 para. 64-66
 See S/2015/702 para. 60-61
 See S/RES/2158 (2014) OP. 1 (d) (iii) and (iv)
 S/2014/740 para. 62
 See S/2015/702 para. 8-14
 S/2015/702 para. 37
 S/2015/702 para. 60-61
 S/2015/702 para. 64-65
 S/2015/702 para. 66
 S/2015/702 para. 73
 S/2015/702 para. 44
 S/2015/702 para. 17
 S/2015/702 para. 28
 S/2015/702 para. 28
 S/2015/702 para. 47